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World War One

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  1. World War One

  2. Start of World War One • Causes of WWI • Imperialism • Nationalism • Alliance System • Militarism

  3. Start of World War One • The southeastern region of Europe was known as a “powder keg” • Many national groups in the region tried to break free from Austria-Hungary

  4. Start of World War One • War Begins • June 28, 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand (heir to Austro-Hungarian throne) is assassinated by GavriloPrincip

  5. Start of World War One • Austria Hungary accused Serbia of the assassination and declared war • The alliance system quickly drew more countries into the war

  6. Start of World War One Allied Powers (Triple Entente) Central Powers Germany Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire • Britain • France • Russia

  7. The Deadliest War • Both sides thought it would be a quick victory, but reality quickly set in • A stalemate started on the Western Front and the battle would drag on for 3 years without either side gaining a clear victory • The Western Front saw the use of trench warfare

  8. The Deadliest War • New Technology made the war more lethal • Airplanes • Armored tanks • Machine Guns • Poison Gas

  9. American Neutrality • President Woodrow Wilson wanted to keep the U.S. out of the war. • Americans were split on who to side with

  10. American Neutrality • American businesses sold supplies to both sides, but a majority of trading was to the Allies and Britain

  11. American Neutrality • The Lusitania • German U-boats practiced unrestricted warfare • May 7, 1915 a U-boat sank A British passenger ship the Lusitania • 1,200 people died (128 were Americans)

  12. U.S. Enters The War • Wilson won reelection in 1916 and promised to keep the U.S. out of the war • However, Germany kept using its unrestricted warfare

  13. U.S. Enters The War • Zimmermann Telegram • Britain intercepted a telegram from Germany to Mexico • Arthur Zimmermann (German Foreign Minister) proposed that Mexico enter the war on Germany’s side and attack the U.S. • In return Germany would help Mexico get back New Mexico, Texas, and Arizona • Soon after the U.S. entered the war (April 6, 1917)

  14. U.S. Enters The War • Russian Revolution • Military defeats and food shortages led to an uprising in Russia • The tsar was removed, which made it easier for the U.S. to enter the war because they would not be siding with a tyrant

  15. Building the Military • The U.S. had a very large navy, but a small army (only 125,000 men) • The U.S. had to mobilize quickly in order to be able to contribute to the war effort

  16. Building the Military • The U.S. did have men volunteer for service, but not enough and they had to institute a draft • Selective Service Act was passed and it required men between the ages of 21 and 30 to register for military draft • By war’s end almost four million Americans had served

  17. Building the Military • Women in the Military • Women were not subject to the draft • More than 30,000 women volunteered for service and were nurses or performed clerical work

  18. Building the Military • A diverse force • About one in five recruits had been born in foreign lands • About 380,000 African Americans also served during the war • Served in all black units • African Americans were mainly held out of combat roles and instead were forced to unload ships, work in kitchens, or construction

  19. Managing the War Effort • Managing Food Supplies • Herbert Hoover was chosen to head the new Food Administration • He had to assure adequate food supplies for both civilians and troops • Hoover urged Americans to conserve valuable food resources • Americans observed “wheatless Mondays,” and “meatless Tuesdays” • Many grew their own “victory gardens”

  20. Managing the War Effort • Producing for War • The war increased demands on American industries • Government ordered two million rifles and 130 million pairs of socks • The War Industries Board was set up to oversee production

  21. Managing the War Effort • Finding Workers • War brought a Labor Shortage • Men went to war and immigration declined • In order to fill jobs, businesses turned to women and African Americans to do the work

  22. Shaping Public Opinion • Calling on Patriotism • President Wilson created the Committee on Public Information, which was to deliver patriotic speeches at places like movie theaters and ball parks • Also created pro-war cartoons and posters