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World War One
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  1. World War One

  2. Causes of World War One: Expanding Empires Germany and Britain global competition

  3. Triple Alliance: Germany, Italy, and Austria-Hungary Italy changes sides, replaced by Ottoman Empire (Turkey) Causes of World War I: Alliance System in Europe

  4. Triple Entente: Britain, France, and Russia Called the Allies, joined by US eventually Both alliances had secret agreements to go to each other’s defense if attacked Neither side knew how strong the alliances were for the other side Causes of World War I: Alliance System in Europe

  5. Causes of World War One: Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany Aggressive, vain, nationalist Sought “Germany’s place in the sun” by expanding empire Conflicts with Britain

  6. Causes of World War One: the British-German Arms Race Britain and Germany created huge navies of advanced ships (the “dreadnoughts”) Germany, Russia, and France increased size of armies British dreadnought German dreadnought

  7. Causes of World War One: a Weakening Austro-Hungarian Empire Made up of numerous nationalities and language groups; many wanted self-rule (“autonomy”) Most aggressive nation: Serbia; wanted to self-govern Home to terrorist groups The Black Hand

  8. Archduke Ferdinand, heir to A-H throne, assassinated by Serbian terrorist Gavrilo Princip, for Serbian independence June 28th, 1914

  9. The Beginning of WW I Because of the alliance system: A-H declares war on Serbia Russia declares on A-H Germany declares war on Russia France and Britain declare war on Germany

  10. America and WW I: 1914 Wilson declares US neutral Most Americans opposed entry American businesses sold to both Allies and Central Powers Some Americans supported Germany Irish-American troops for the Central Powers

  11. US to Drifts Into War Reasons America began to support the Allies: 1914 invasion of Belgium by CP; treated harshly by Germans Americans respond with Belgian Relief Fund; led by Herbert Hoover

  12. US to Drifts Into War British propaganda affects Americans’ view of Germans and the war New use of newsreels/movies

  13. The Lusitania British passenger ship, carrying Americans and weapons and ammunition Germans give warning in NY papers; U-boats sink ship off the coast of Ireland, killing 127 Americans

  14. Wilson threatens war; Germans “apologize”, promises not sink ships without warning (the “Sussex Pledge”) Sinking of ships continues

  15. 1916 Election Wilson vs. Charles Evans Hughes Main issue: US in the war or not “He Kept Us Out of War”

  16. America’s Entry Into War Deteriorating German/American relations: U-Boat activity treatment of Belgium impact of propaganda America sympathizes with Allies; not ready to enter war

  17. The Zimmermann Note Telegram sent from German ambassador to MX; proposes alliance against US Denied by both Ger. and MX; discovered by British agents Impact: Germans break the Sussex Pledge, resume sinking ships without warning German Ambassador Arthur Zimmermann

  18. Final breaking point with Germany; Kaiser prepares for war with America

  19. America Declares War (April 2, 1917) US formally breaks relations after 6 US ships sunk, with over 200 casualties. Also Britain and France appeal to Wilson for help

  20. America Prepares for War Wilson reorganizes American society for war; greatest degree of govt. control in history. Attempts to sell war as a “war to end all wars” and to “make the world safe for democracy”. Makes war a “moral crusade”; ex. The Fourteen Points

  21. The Fourteen Points (Jan., 1918) Copy of Wilson’s speech on the 14 Points Wilson’s goals for the war: “freedom of the seas” – no U-boats or blockades “reduction of worldwide trade barriers” – increases economic alliances “self-determination for imperial holdings” – colonies should govern themselves “self-determination for Austria-Hungary” no secret treaties re-creation of Poland arms and naval limitations

  22. The League of Nations The 14th and most important Point; “an association of nations” for “collective security”; a multinational alliance between nations

  23. US Prepares for War Government organizes propaganda campaign to generate support for the war Committee on Public Information – designed to give “news” on info on the war Use of propaganda; control of news media

  24. Use of Propaganda Films Use of the new film industry to promote the war; both newsreels and Hollywood movies used George Creel

  25. In what ways could Americans participate in the war even if they were not soldiers?

  26. The Espionage and Sedition Acts Meant to suppress anti-war efforts or speeches Acts deemed as “un-American” could mean jail or deportation, suspended First Amendment Eugene Debs arrested later pardoned by Pres. Harding

  27. The War Industries Board An attempt to put US economy toward a war basis All production toward war effort Wages, prices and production controlled by Board Led by Bernard Baruch

  28. The War Industries Board Use of women in war factories Led to passage of 19th Amendment Women also used to sell the war and sell bonds

  29. The Food Administration Organized food conservation efforts and the planting of “liberty gardens”

  30. The Food Administration Relied on appeals and propaganda campaigns

  31. Cigarettes Win the War!

  32. Paying for the War War financed through borrowing (the “liberty bond”) Sold billions of $$ Use of celebrities

  33. The Draft 4 million drafted; 2 mil. sent to combat; poorly trained; lack of equipment, officers

  34. Different Type of War

  35. American Expeditionary Force (AEF) First battle: Chateau-Thierry, May 28th, 1918 John Pershing

  36. American Expeditionary Force (AEF) Belleau Wood (June, 1918): US Marine Corp fights the Germans to a draw after three days, despite 4 to 1 odds. “The Devil Dogs” “Retreat? Hell, we just got here!”

  37. American Expeditionary Force (AEF) June, 1918 – November, 1918: the last major campaign, the Meuse-Argonne Offensive

  38. Armistice: November 11, 1918 Germany asks for cease-fire Peace sought based on 14 Points War ends at 11:00, 11/11/18

  39. Losing the Peace Germany in chaos; starvation and looting in Berlin; America sends food and coal; Allies prepare for peace conference; Wilson arrives as hero

  40. Versailles, 1919 Conference dominated by the “Big Four” Lloyd George (GB) Clemenceau (FR) Orlando (IT) Wilson (USA)

  41. Versailles, 1919 Attended by most countries, except Germany and newly-formed USSR Many sought “self-determination” as stated in Wilson’s 14 Points; most are denied

  42. Versailles, 1919 France and Britain intent on revenge and maintaining their empires; forces Wilson to give up most of 14 Points Wilson sacrifices most of the Points to keep League of Nations

  43. Germany territory given to France and newly created Poland

  44. New Map of Europe After Versailles New countries created: Czechoslovakia Austria Hungary Romania Yugoslavia Poland Estonia Latvia Lithuania

  45. France and Britain redraw Middle East New countries created: Syria Iraq Kuwait Palestine Jordan Lebanon Turkey Iran

  46. Versailles, 1919 Germany forced to pay millions in reparations; forces Germany into poverty; currency worthless; unemployment high Radical movements gain acceptance Hitler, 1928

  47. The Fight to Ratify the Treaty Wilson returns to US to face Republican Senate; needs 2/3 vote for approval Many oppose Treaty because of Article 10, would force US to go to war if any member nation attacked Two Groups: Reservationists & Irreconcilables Leader of opposition: Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge

  48. The Fight to Ratify the Treaty Lodge offers “Fourteen Reservations” about the Treaty; approval of Treaty unlikely Wilson goes to American people to gain support for it, goes on tour (“Wilson RocksAmerica”!)

  49. The Fight to Ratify the Treaty Sept, 1919: Wilson suffers a stroke in Colorado, rushed back to D.C. Unable to function for next seven months Edith Wilson in effect President of US