Critical Issues in Policing • Background to PolicingEthnocentric Bias to the invention of the police. Peel thought it reasonable. • American Model of Policing: not simply inherited from England.1.Violence2. Pluralism3. American Belief in the Law
Critical Issues in Policing • American Model of Policing: not simply inherited from England 4. Fascination with Technology • Several Themes1. Publicly defined role as violent2.Technologically sophisticated3. Crime related4.Professionally oriented5. Must be viewed by society that way
Critical Issues in Policing • Peter Manning and Egon Bittner:The police are not controlled by the law but use it to gain public support for their actions. • Manning’s Mandate • Police have set out their mandate1. Efficient2. Apolitical3. Professional enforcers of the law
Critical Issues in Policing • Manning: mandate is unmanageable and as a result of failure to meet expectations, manipulation of appearances1. Strategies2. Tactics • Police mandate in modern society determined by publicsExcitement of police work: reinforce mandate and used by org to define success
Critical Issues in Policing • Factors Relating to the Police Mandate:1. Ambiguity of the criminal law2. Police work as peace keeping3. Police in the political system4. The efficient, symptom-oriented organization • Major strategies of the police1. The guise of professionalism
Critical Issues in Policing • Major strategies of the police1. The guise of professionalism2. Technology, stats, and the crime rate3. Styles of patrol4. Secrecy and collaboration5. Symbiosis and justice • Bittner’s Function of Police in Society • The Public’s Perception of the Police
Critical Issues in Policing • The Police and the MediaWho are the Media? Entertainment vs. News Consistent Themes about the policeA complicated relationship • What are the functions of the police?Crime ControlSocial ServicesOrder Maint.
Critical Issues in Policing • The Social Realities of PolicingWhat is the job of police officer like?Public’s perception: it’s dangerousIs it boring?Does it require more action or compassion skills?What kind of police do we want? • Transition from citizen to officer: do we need it?
Critical Issues in Policing • Transition from citizen to officer: do we need it? Are police officers different from other citizens?Military organization: is this good? Does it encourage new ideas? Does it reinforce machismo? • Inservice or FTO training: what does this do for status quo?
Critical Issues in Policing • Officer is on his/her own: what kinds of skills have we instilled in them? Are their skills technical or more subjective and cognitive?
Critical Issues in Policing • From individuals to policing in general: a few things to think about.1. Police largest and most powerful component of cjs2. Police are most complex and controversial of all components of cjs3. Police will, by nature of activities be unjust and offensive to someone.
Critical Issues in Policing • From individuals to policing in general: a few things to think about. 4. Role in society means police power will be focused on young, poor, minorities. Why? Bittner’s comments.
Corruption • Three Important Issues in LE: Terrorism, Ethics/Corruption, Recruitment • Defining Morality and Ethics: Whose definition? • Ethics of Process or Ethics of Results: Do the ends justify the means? • As a form of philosophy, ethics is a means of inquiry or to evaluate behavior.
Corruption • Utilitarianism=Consequentialism Basically, actions should ensure the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. If consequences are good=action is moral, if not…. Important question though: What is good and Who’s good should we be concerned with?
Corruption • Deonotological Ethics Examines one’s duty to act. Duty matters more than results. Hard to do the right thing all the time for people. • Immanuel Kant Expanded duty to act by including good will/intention. Problem is that some can be convinced it is a good idea when it is not.
Justice Law Agency Policy Code of Ethics Social Norms Personal Values
Corruption • Source of Ethics Defining ethical behavior often depends on the context in which the decision is made and the source from which the decision makers draw perceptions of right and wrong. • Justice: what does that mean? • Law • Agency Policy • Professional Code of Ethics • Social Norms and Personal Values
Corruption • Sherman’s identification of inappropriate values that veteran officers teach rookies: • Enforcement decisions • Disrespect • Use of Force • Due Process • Deception • Responding to calls • Rewards • Loyalty
Corruption • Crime, Corruption, Abuse and Illegal Behavior: Police Crime, Occupational Deviance, Corruption, and Abuse of Authority
Women in Policing Why Would Women Want to Be Cops? Three general experiences during careers1. Acceptance problems 2. Career adjustments—catch 22 3. Abuse and harassment
Women in Policing History of Women in Policing 1820s moral entrepeneurs Post Civil War: WCTU and General Federation of Women’s Clubs NYC first to hire f/t police matrons
Women in Policing Why did we see female officers outside prisons/jails in the early 20th century? Technological advances, intellectual changes, morality shifts.
Women in Policing Factors shaping the development of female policing in the US. Moral Basis Volunteers Proselytizing Opposition from senior officers Specialized police work Protect own sex Why did we see female officers outside prisons/jails in the early 20th century? Technological advances, intellectual changes, morality shifts.
Women in Policing Women who serve today: A profile Numbers Personal CharacteristicsRaceEducation Previous work experience Family background
Women in Policing This is a Man’s Job Reasons offered why women shouldn’t serve Can’t cope with danger Undermine male solidarity Can’t interact with males Physical size
Women in Policing Comparison of Male and Female Job Performance-research findings- Females:patrol equally effectivemore restraint with firearmsmore restraint in domesticsgreater sensitivity to community
Women in Policing Comparison of Male and Female Job Performance-research findings Females:less use of sick timeless disciplinary action assaulted more oftenmore vehicle collisionsmore injuries
Women in Policing Men:better shooting abilitysuperior strength and agilityless assistance in making arrests
Women in Policing A More Contemporary View: Women and Community PolicingFamiliarity w/ communityDecentralization of powerPreventionSocial Work Success in a Difficult Career POLICEwoman vs. PoliceWOMAN
Women in Policing Stress-handle it better than men Marriage-kids as a balance, but divorce rate really high Suicides Deviant Behavior/Corruption Harassment in the police culture: survey of police chiefs: scenario
Minorities and the Police Minorities in policing African American Police Officers Growing Acceptance? Stephen Leinen’s study Politicalization of AAPO African American Women Officers
Minorities and the Police Policing Minority Communities-What do we know? Violent Crime Arrests Use of Force Deadly Force Minority Officers: Abusers too?
Minorities and the Police Other forms of Abuse DWB Profiling Stop and Frisks Verbal abuse Racial Profiling
Minorities and the Police What to do? A “new breed” of Officer How to ID candidates? Selecting In vs. Selecting Out
Minorities and the Police Hate Crimes Making Sense of Police-Minority Relations Police/Minority Relations and Broken Windows
Minorities and the Police Police/Minority Relations and Broken Windows Broken Windows and NYC Broken Windows and the NYC Mayoral Race Broken Windows and Minority Communities The Problems with Broken Windows
Police Use of Force • The Meaning of Excessive Force • Tennessee v. Garner • Patterns of Police Use of Force • Use of Force Continuum Physical presence Soft-handed Mace/CS Hard Hands Baton Threat of Deadly Force/Use
Police Use of Force • Research on Use of Force • Police Pursuits and Force A Closer Look at the NumbersShould Officers Pursue? • Use of Force by Off-Duty Officers 1. Generally occurs when out of uniform 2. ODOs involved where on duty do not 3. Shootings more likely to be in violation of policy
Police Use of Force 4. ODOs more likely to use Deadly Force when drinking • So should we allow ODO to carry weapons? • Early Warning Systems to ID Problem Officers—Sam Walker’s work Complaints Use of Force Reprimands Discharge of Firearms
Police Use of Force • Assaults Against Police Officers—what does the data tell us? • Suicide by Cop—what do we know?
Police Culture and Behavior • The Police Personality • The Psychological Perspective • The Sociological Perspective
Police Culture and Behavior • The Police SubcultureThe Law and Police CultureThe Police WorldviewPolice Ethos: bravery, autonomy, secrecyPolice Themes: Isolation and SolidarityPolice Postulates
Police Culture and Behavior • Police StressLife threatening stressors Social isolation stressorsOrganizational stressorsFunctional stressorsPersonal stressorsPhysiological stressorsPsychological stressors
Police Culture and Behavior Physiological stressorsPsychological stressors • Effects of Police StressPTSDCumulative stress • Stress Burnout Survey
Police Culture and Behavior • Police Suicide • Alcoholism and Drug Abuse • Mortality and Health Problems • Reducing Police Stress
Critical Issues in Policing: Education and the Police • Two basic questions: 1. Are college educated officers better at their jobs than non-college ones?2. Does college make a person a better police officer? • Development of Police ProgramsAugust Vollmer’s influence
Critical Issues in Policing: Education and the Police • Development of Police ProgramsAugust Vollmer’s influence2 events in mid/late 1960s1. Perception that crime was out of control2. Ghetto riots and clashes with the police: beginning of “war on crime.” • 1967 President’s Commission on LE and the Administration of Justice
Critical Issues in Policing: Education and the Police • 1967 President’s Commission on LE and the Administration of JusticeTask Force on Police: quality of police service can’t be improved until higher education requirements were established. • Created LEAA poured billions of $ into the CJS, focusing on the police. LEEP to provide financial assistance to officers.
Critical Issues in Policing: Education and the Police • The Quality of Higher EducationCop Shops/ courses had training orientation bc of lack of qualified personnel to teach. • Criminal Justice Ph.D. programs developed bc of stagnant market in sociology • Police Foundation study aka National Advisory Commission on Higher Education for Police Officers: recommendations
Critical Issues in Policing: Education and the Police • Police Foundation study aka National Advisory Commission on Higher Education for Police Officers: recommendations • Advantages for colleges • Advantages for police depts. • So does education make for better officers?Police Performance • Incentive Programs for Higher Education