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Ecology. BIO 2215 Oklahoma City Community College Dennis Anderson. Ecology. Study of the interactions of living organisms with each other and their environment. Scales of Life Populations—All members of a single species that live together in a specified geographic region.

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ecology
Ecology

BIO 2215

Oklahoma City Community College

Dennis Anderson

ecology1
Ecology
  • Study of the interactions of living organisms with each other and their environment
slide3
Scales of Life
    • Populations—All members of a single species that live together in a specified geographic region.
    • Communities—All species that potentially interact with one another, in a given region.
    • Ecosystems—Communities of living things and their nonliving environment.
    • Biosphere—Entire interactive collection of the Earth’s ecosystems.
slide4

Biosphere

Population

Ecosystem

Organism

Community

slide5
The Ecosystem: The Fundamental Unit of Ecology
    • Ecosystem—A self-sustaining community of organisms and the physical environment with which they interact.
    • Consist of biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) factors.
    • Depend on Sun for ultimate source of energy; there’s one-way flow of energy through an ecosystem.
    • Some nutrients and water are taken up by living organisms and then cycled back to the abiotic component of an ecosystem.
producer
Producer
  • Produces food
  • Energy from sunlight converted into chemical energy
  • Plants
  • Algae
consumer
Consumer
  • Consume food by eating
  • Primary
  • Secondary
  • Tertiary
decomposer
Decomposer
  • Decompose dead bodies and organic matter
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
pyramid of numbers
Pyramid of Numbers

Consumer

1

Consumer

90,000

Consumer

200,000

Producers

1,500,000

pyramid of biomass
Pyramid of Biomass

Consumer

1 g/m2

Consumer

11 g/m2

Consumer

37 g/m2

Producers

809 g/m2

slide12

Man

Cattle

Alfalfa

slide13

Man

Cattle

Alfalfa

Man

Rice

slide15

1st trophic level

3rd trophic level

2nd trophic level

4th trophic level

Secondary

consumers

(herbivore predators)

producers

(photosynthesizers)

Primary

consumers

(plant predators)

Tertiary

consumers

(carnivore predators)

slide16

kingfisher

merganser

otter

great blue heron

dipper

garter snake

steelhead

roach

stickleback

newt

caddis fly larva

frog tadpole

snail

water scavenger

beetle larva

crayfish

tuft midge

blue-green algae

diatoms

green algae

abiotic components of an ecosystem
Abiotic Components of an Ecosystem
  • Carbon
  • Nitrogen
  • Water
  • Temperature
  • Sunlight
  • Etc
slide18

THE CARBON CYCLE

atmospheric CO2

5

burning

of fossil

fuels

1 photosynthesis

respiration

2 respiration

plants

animals

4

3

fossil fuels

dead organisms

decomposition by

bacteria and fungi

slide19

THE NITROGEN CYCLE

bacteria in

root nodules

of plants, and

in soil

atmospheric N2

assimilation

into animals

assimilation

into plants

2

5

denitrifying

bacteria

animal waste

dead organisms

1 nitrogen fixation

3 decomposition

by bacteria and fungi

ammonia (NH3)

ammonium NH4+)

4 nitrifying

bacteria

nitrate (NO3)

slide21

THE HYDROLOGIC CYCLE

90%

10%

water

vapor

precipitation

over land

evaporation

precipitation

over ocean

transpiration,

evaporation

surface

runoff

ocean

groundwater

groundwater

runoff

slide22

Sun

1,000,000

Calories

Producer

5,000

2,000

1,000

500

Consumer

Consumer

Consumer

200

Decomposer

6,700

20,000

5,000

10,000

1,000

2,000

500

300

Total 20,000

energy
Energy
  • Does not cycle in an ecosystem
  • Usable energy lost at each trophic level
  • Sun is the source of energy
habitat
Habitat
  • Where an organism is found
    • Marine
    • Fresh water
    • Tree tops
    • Under ground
    • etc
niche
Niche
  • How an organism obtains food and resources to survive
    • “occupation”
  • Black rhino feeds on leaves and woody plants
  • White Rhino feed on grasses and herbs
slide28

Competitive

exclusion

P. aurelia

Population size

P. caudatum

Time (days)

P. aurelia

Resource

partitioning

Population size

P. bursaria

Time (days)

slide31

peak

16

peak

12

8

Song level

4

0

1200

OH

800

CH3

Testosterone level

CH3

400

O

0

January

April

August

December

Month

advantages of group living
Advantages of Group Living
  • Easier to detect predator
  • Easier to repel predator
  • Protect young
  • Easier to find food
  • Easier to find a mate
disadvantages of group living
Disadvantages of Group Living
  • More competition
  • More disease
dominance hierarchy
Dominance Hierarchy
  • Each member has a rank in the pack
  • Alpha—highest rank
  • Beta—second rank
  • Omega—lowest rank
dominance hierarchy1
Dominance Hierarchy
  • Reduces conflict
  • Promotes social order
predators benefit prey
Predators Benefit Prey
  • Prevent overpopulation
  • Remove weak and sick from population
symbosis
Symbosis
  • Living together
  • Parasitism
  • Commensalism
  • Mutualism
parasitism
Parasitism
  • Parasite benefits
  • Host harmed
mutualism

Mutualism

Both benefit

commensalism
Commensalism
  • Shark and Remora
  • Remora benefits
populations
Populations
  • Capacity to grow exponentially

2-4-8-16-32-64

128……1,000,000

population growth
Population Growth
  • Birth rate
  • Death rate
  • Example
    • Population of 100
    • 10 births and 8 deaths
    • Rate of growth is 2%
slide51

Number in Population

Carry Capacity

Log Phase

Lag Phase

Time

carrying capacity
Carrying Capacity
  • Optimum number of individuals an ecosystem can support for an extended period of time.
environment resistance
Environment Resistance
  • Food
  • Space
  • Disease
  • Predators
slide54

TYPES OF POPULATION GROWTH

exponential growth

logistic growth

K

Population size

more complex growth

K

Time

J shaped growth

S shaped growth

population crash
Population Crash
  • 1944 29 reindeer introduced to St. Matthew island
  • 1964 population increased to 6,000
  • Crashed to only reindeer 42
  • All died a few years later
kiabab forest
Kiabab Forest

1907 population = 4,000

1925 population 100,000

challenges of expanding human population
Challenges of Expanding Human Population
  • 250,000 babies born each day
  • 19,000 people starve to death each day
  • Carrying capacity for American lifestyle is 2.5 billion
  • 2 billion people do not have enough food, water and clean air.
biodiversity
Biodiversity
  • Diversity of species
  • Decrease Biodiversity
    • Habitat destruction
    • Pollution
    • Excessive
      • Hunting
      • Fishing
      • poaching
coral reefs
Coral Reefs
  • 10% of coral reefs lost in 1992
  • 27% of coral reefs lost in 2000
  • Global warming
  • Over fishing
  • Mining
  • Pollution