Out of Many Chapter 6 From Empire to Independence
Graffiti Wall • Review • What do we know so far about the North American continent? • What has been occurring and developing since 1492? • Each student place 3 items.
The Seven Years’ War in America • 1754, first attempt at cooperation among leaders of the Colonies (N.England, NY, PA, MD) • War would put Britain & Prussia against France, Austria, & Spain • Known as the French & Indian War in the Americas • Decided the future of the vast region between the Appalachian Mtns & MS River • Laid the groundwork for the conflict between the British
Beginning of the War • From the Brits P.O.V, the French provoked the war • Built a chain of forts in the OH River Valley • Halted the westward growth of the British colonies • Hoping to stop the building of Fort Duquesne (French)(Pittsburgh), the governor of VA sent a militia • Under control of colonel George Washington (Journal) • Washington surrendered on July 3, 1754at Fort Necessity • More attacks from the British • 1755, General Edward Braddock, near Ft. Duquesne, lost 2,000 troops (Braddock killed marks full scale war) • Invaded French Canada in 1756 & 1757 unsuccessfully
Iroquois Confederacy • Tried to play European powers against each other • Most dominate northern region • Used Chain of Covenant to promote status and advantage Other tribes against the British (Ohio River) due to their expulsion from the coast line
What understanding can we add to the start of the war? The French “have stripped us of more than nine parts in ten of North America, “ one British official cried. “and left us only a skirt of coast along the Atlantic shore.”
Albany Conference of 1754 • Attempted to create an alliance withthe Iroquois Confederacy • Had strategic place between the French &British colonies • Could not afford to have discontent with sucha large power • Iroquois Confederacy walked out of theconference • Plan of Union • Developed by Ben Franklin • Provided for an intercolonialgov’t & a system for recruiting troops & collecting taxes from the various colonies for their common defense • Each colony was too jealous of its own taxation powers to accept the plan – never took effect • Importance – set a precedent for more revolutionary congresses in the 1770s • Absence of cooperation among the colonies would be the greatest weakness of the British empire
Why did the Albany plan not succeed? • What can we then predict from this Albany conferences outcomes and the act of revolution yet to come?
British Victory & the Conquest of Canada 1757…. “I know I can save this country and that no one else can” • In London, William Pitt, the new British prime minister, concentrated the gov’ts military strategy on conquering Canada • Subsidized the Prussian forces to fight the war in Europe & sent the British forces to the colonies • The objective accomplished: • 1758, retook Louisbourg • 1759, surrender of Quebec to General James Wolfe • 1760, taking of Montreal • In the final 2 years, the British swept French ships from the seas, invaded Havana & conquered Cuba
British and Pitt take on the Iroquois Confederacy • Britain brings the Iroquois to the negotiation table • In desperate need of them to be allies • They agree • But the answer is why? What did the British bring to the table that lured the Iroquois to become allies?
Additional assignment • Find three pieces of evidence that led the emergence of American Nationalism • Be ready to defend your evidence • Read the primary source on the Proclamation of 1763. Complete question 2 only and An American Colonist Opposes New Taxes and Asserts the Rights of the Colonists 1764 • Listen to the speech given by Patrick Henry. Located on website. Be ready to discuss his speech and how his rhetoric could ignite the fuse to revolt.
Treaty of Paris • Also called the Peace of Paris • Signed in 1763 • France lost all of its possessions on the N.American mainland • Great Britain acquired French Canada • Ceded (gave up) to Spain its huge western territory (LA) as compensation for their loss of FL • Only maintained its port in New Orleans • Spain lost territory as well • Great Britain acquired Spanish Florida • Given back their Caribbean & Pacific colonies by the British
Immediate Effects of the War • Great Britain had unchallenged supremacy in North America • Great Britain established as dominant naval power • Colonies no longer faced the threat of concerted attacks from the French, Spanish, or their Native American allies • Fundamental change in the relationship between the home gov’t & the colonies
Viewpoints of the War British View Colonial View • Generally low opinion of the colonial military effort • Poorly trained, disorderly • Some colonies refused to contribute either troops or money to the war effort • Convinced colonists were unable & unwilling to defend the new frontiers of the vastly expanded empire • Proud of their record in all four of the wars (the fourth being the French & Indian War) • Developed confidence that they could successfully provide for their own defense • Not impressed with British troops or their leadership • Methods seemed badly suited for densely wooded terrain
Struggle for the West • Indians shocked by French cession • “had no right to give away [our] country” • British did not continue the custom of winning over the Indians with gifts • Stopped supplying them with ammunition • Many Indians required that for hunting – many starved
Royal Proclamation of 1763 • Before the Indian uprising in the West, the British had been at work on a policy they hoped would help to resolve frontier tensions • Royal proclamation setting the boundary known as the Proclamation Line • Set the region west of the crest of the Appalachian Mtns. as “Indian Country” • Colonist did not understand how the British would just give territory to the Indians • Defying the prohibition, thousands streamed westward beyond the imaginary boundary line drawn by the British
Discussion Question #1What ways did the Seven Years’ War lay the ground work for the American Revolution?
Stop and practice • Turn to page 196-197 • By yourself, go through questions 2,3,4,5 • What answers did you come up with. Place on your post it note.
Emergence of American Nationalism • During the war, many had begun to note important contrasts between themselves & the mother country • Those who witnessed the treatment of the British soldiers by their officers found it easy to believe in the threat of Britain enslaving colonists • Strengthened a sense of identity among the colonies • Many had travelled far distances to fight & saw new lands • Reinforced a developing nationalist perspective • 1735-1775, trade among the colonies increased by a factor of 4
The Press, Politics, Republicanism • Zenger trial • Although freedom of the press was still illegal, the case set a precedent for newspapers to take more risks with their writings • Press began to focus more on intercolonial affairs • Papers often reprinted the writings of the radical Whigs • Name used by advocates of colonial resistance to British measures during the 1760s & 1770s • John Trenchard & Thomas Gordon – pamphleteers • John Locke – political theorist • Alexander Pope & Jonathan Swift – essayists • Views came to define the political consensus of the British colonies – “republicanism” • A complex, changing body of ideas, values, and assumptions, closely related to country ideology, that influenced American political behavior during the 18th & 19th centuries
In own words…. What is… • Republicanism Who are some key historical figures that pushed this philosophy? How did it fit into the “American” life?
White boards:What was…Who was…Why…reaction/Action… Sugar Act Stamp Act Quartering Act Declaratory Act Nonimportation movement Townshend Revenue Acts Massachusetts Circular Letter Tea Act Intolerable Acts
“Your Sugary Quarter Stamp will Declare your Townshend Tea to be Intolerable.” • Sugar Act-1764 • AKA the Revenue Act of 1764 • Placed duties on foreign sugar & luxuries • Chief purpose was to raise money for the crown • Quartering Act-1763 • Required colonist to provided food & living quarters to British soldiers • Stamp Act-1765 • Purpose was to raise funds for the British military forces • 1765, required that revenue stamps be laced on most printed paper in the colonies • Included legal document, newspapers, pamphlets & advertisements • First direct tax – collected from those who used the goods – paid by the people in the colonies, instead of the merchants
“Your Sugary Quarter Stamp will Declare your Townshend Tea to be Intolerable.” • Protests to the Stamp Act • Reacted with fury & indignations • Patrick Henry (VA),stood in the House of Burgesses & declared that the king’s gov’t recognize the rights of all citizens – including no taxation w/out representation • British parliament argued that they could “virtually represent” the colonies because it was for the best interest of the empire • James Otis (MA) called for a cooperative protest • Formation of the Sons & Daughters of Liberty • secret society who imitated tax agents • Members sometimes tarred & feathered officials & destroyed revenue stamps • Boycotts against British imports became the most effective form of protest
“Your Sugary Quarter Stamp will Declare your Townshend Tea to be Intolerable.” • Declaratory Act • 1766, Parliament voted to repeal the Stamp Act • Widespread rejoicing in the colonies • Declaratory Act was designed as a face-saving act • Asserted that Parliament had the right to tax & make laws for the colonies “in all cases whatsoever” • Townshend Revenue Acts • Charles Townshend – newly appointed chancellor of the exchequer • Britain still needed more tax revenues • 1767, enacted new duties to be collected on colonial imports of tea, glass, & paper • Required that the revenues raised be used to pay crown officials in the colonies • Provided for the search of private homes for smuggled goods • All an official needed was a writ of assistance (a general license to search anywhere) rather than an official warrant from the courts
“Your Sugary Quarter Stamp will Declare your Townshend Tea to be Intolerable.” • Colonial Reactions to the Townshend Act • Did not strongly protest at first • Taxes were still being paid by merchants • After many pamphlets & circulars protesting the act, the colonists once again began to boycott British goods • Repeal of the Townshend Acts • Lord Frederick North became the new prime minister • Urged Parliament to repeal because their effect was damaging trade & generated a small amount of revenue • Repealed in 1770 • A small tax on tea was retained as a symbol of Parliament’s right to tax the colonies • For the most part, ended the colonial boycott
Example of a Boston Mob • Samuel Adams and John Adams • What is the difference between Sam Adams’ ideology of gaining freedom and that of John Adams?
The Boston Massacre • The people of Boston typically resented the British troops who had been quartered in their city to protect customs officials from being attacked • March 1770, a crowd of colonists harassed the guards near the customs house • Guards fired into the crowd, killed 5 people • Included 1 African American named Crispus Attucks • Went to trial, but was acquitted • John Adams was their colonial lawyer • Samuel Adams denounced it as a “massacre” • Episode often used by colonial leaders to inflame anti-British feeling
“Your Sugary Quarter Stamp will Declare your Townshend Tea to be Intolerable.” • Tea Act • The colonists were still boycotting British tea • Hoped to help out the British East India Company • Passed in 1773 • Made the price of the company’s tea – even with tax included – cheaper than that of smuggled Dutch tea. • Boston Pamphlet • Written by Samuel Adams • Concluded that British encroachments on colonial rights pointed to a plot to enslave Americans
Renewal of Conflict • Correspondence • Samuel Adams & a few others were trying to keep alive the idea that British officials were conspiring against the colonies • Committees of Correspondence, 1772 • In Boston & other MA towns • Practice of regularly exchangingletters about suspicious or potentiallythreatening British activities • The Gaspee • British custom ship that had beencatching smugglers • 1772, the ship ran ashore • Colonists disguised as Native Americans ordered the ship’s crew on shore & destroyed the ship by setting it on fire
The Boston Tea Party • Many Americans refused to buy the cheaper British tea – to do so would recognize Parliament’s right to tax the colonists • December 1773, a shipment arrived in Boston, but there were no buyers • Before the tea could be unloaded, a group of colonists, again disguised as Native Americans, boarded the ship • Dumped 342 chests of tea into the harbor • Colonial reaction to this was mixed • Many applauded the Tea Party as a justifiable defense of liberty • Others thought the destruction of private property was far too radical
“Your Sugary Quarter Stamp will Declare your Townshend Tea to be Intolerable.” • Intolerable Acts • During the Spring of 1774, an angry Parliament passed a series of acts called the Coercive Acts • The Port Act – closed the port of Boston, prohibited trade in & out of the harbor until the tea was paid for • The Massachusetts Governor Act – reduced the power of the MA legislature while increasing power of their royal governor • The Administration of Justice Act – allowed royal officials accused of crimes to be tried in England rather than the colonies • Quartering Act – expansion of the previous act; enable British troops to be quartered in private homes; applied to all colonists
“Your Sugary Quarter Stamp will Declare your Townshend Tea to be Intolerable.” • Intolerable Acts • Quebec Act • Passed at the same time as the Coercive Acts • This law organized the lands in Canada gained from France • Established Roman Catholicism as the official religion of Quebec • Set up a non-representative gov’t assembly • Extended Quebec’s boundary to the Ohio River • Accepted by most French Canadians, but rejected by many in the colonies • viewed it as a direct attack because it took away lands • Afraid that Britain would begin to take away their representative gov’ts • Protestant Americans also resented the recognition of Catholicism • Confirmed the prediction of the Committees of Correspondence that there was a British plot to destroy American liberty
Overview • Pg. 185 in your textbook has an excellent chart regarding all of the acts that were passed by the British Parliament from 1764 - 1774
The First Continental Congress • The nature of the Intolerable Acts drove all the colonies, except GA, to send delegates to a convention in Philadelphia in Sept. 1774 • Purpose of the convention was to determine how the colonies should react to what • At this time, most Americans had no desire for independence • Wanted to protest parliamentary intrusions • Restore the relationship with the crown
The First Continental Congress: The Delegates • Diverse group whose views about the crisis ranged from radical to conservative • Radicals • Patrick Henry (VA), Samuel Adams (MA), John Adams (MA) • Moderates • George Washington (VA), John Dickson (PA) • Conservatives • John Jay (NY), Joseph Galloway (PA) • The only group unrepresented was that of the loyalists who would not challenge the king’s gov’t in any way
The First Continental Congress: Actions • Joseph Galloway proposed a plan similar to that of the Albany Union Plan – but it failed to passed • Following measures were adopted: • The Suffolk Resolves • rejected the Intolerable Acts & called for their immediate repeal • urged colonies to resist the Intolerable Acts by making military preparations & boycotting • Declaration of Rights & Grievances • Petition to the king urging him to redress (make right) colonial grievances & restore colonial rights • Recognized Parliament’s right to regulate commerce • The Association • Urged the creation of committees in every town to enforce the economic sanctions of the Suffolk Resolves • If these rights were not recognized, they called for the meeting of a second congress in May 1775
Fighting Begins • The king’s gov’t dismissed thepetition of the First ContinentalCongress • Sent British troops to MA tocontrol the disorders • Lexington • April 18, 1775 • General Thomas Gage – commander of British troops – sent his men to seize colonial military supplies • Paul Revere & William Dawes warned the militia (or minutemen) of the coming march; assembled on the village green of Lexington to face the British • Americans were retreating, but keeping their arms. First shot – unknown who fired it. No orders were given. • American’s lost 8 men
Fighting Begins • Concord • The British continued their march to Concord where they burned a small quantity of supplies & cut down a liberty pole • On their return march to Boston, the British were fired upon by militiamen who were hidden behind walls • British lost 250 men – humiliating that they were so badly mauled by “amateur” fighters
Fighting Begins • Bunker Hill • Two months after Concord, a true battle was fought between the opposing armies in Boston • Militia farmers fortified Breed’s Hill, next to Bunker Hill, for which the ensuing battle was wrongly named • British attacked & managed to take the hill, suffering over a thousand casualties • Americans claimed a victory of sorts – succeed in inflicting heavy losses on the British army
The Second Continental Congress • May 1775, Soon after the fighting broke out in MA, delegates met in Philadelphia • Divided on two fronts: • New Englanders – wanted independence • Middle Colonists – hoped the conflict could still be resolved by negotiating a new relationship with Britain • Declaration of the Causes & Necessities for Taking Up Arms • Called on the colonies to provide troops • George Washington was appointed commander-in-chief of the colonial army • Authorized a force under Benedict Arnold to raid Quebec in order to draw Canada away from Britain
The Second Continental Congress • Peace Efforts • Adopted a policy of raging war while simultaneously seeking peace • July 1775, delegates sent an “Olive Branch Petition” to King George III which pledged their loyalty & asked the king to intercede with Parliament • King dismissed the plea & agreed to Parliament’s Prohibitionary Act (Aug.1775) which declared the colonies in rebellion
Thomas Paine’s Argument for Independence • January 1776, pamphlet was published • Common Sense • Argued in clear & forceful language for the colonies becoming independent states & breaking all ties with the British monarchy • Argued that it was contrary to common sense for a large continent to be ruled by a small & distant land • Argued it was contrary to common sense for people to pledge allegiance to a king whose gov’t was corrupt & laws that were unreasonable
No Turning Back • The Second Continental Congress was rapidly assuming the role of a new gov’t for all the provinces • Reconvened in Sept. 1775 & rec’d news of the king’s proclamation • On June 7, 1776, Richard Henry Lee (VA) introduced a resolution declaring the colonies to be independent • Five delegates (including Thomas Jefferson) formed a committee to write a statement in support of Lee’s resolution • Declaration listed specific grievances against King George III’s gov’t & also expressed the basic principles that justified revolution • The Congress adopted Lee’s resolution calling for independence on July 2; the Declaration of Independence was adopted on July 4, 1776
Additional Assignment(Read Chapter 7: American Revolution; notes on all of it. • Take on the role of a colonial newspaper editor, preparing an editorial for July 5th. • Write a pro-independence or anti-independence editorial. • Dependent on the viewpoint, Explain the main ideas of the Declaration, its ideological antecedents, and their approval or disapproval. • Needs to be 1-2 pages/Times New Roman 12font/double spaced