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Filamentous Ascomycetes Eurotiales and Allied Taxa. Pl P 421/521 Lecture 6. From Spatafora et al. 2006. A five-gene phylogeny of Pezizomycotina. Mycologia 98: 1018-1028. From Geiser et al. 2006. Mycologia 98: 1063-1064. Onygenales. Family Onygenaceae

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From Spatafora et al. 2006. A five-gene phylogeny of Pezizomycotina. Mycologia 98: 1018-1028

onygenales
Onygenales
  • Family Onygenaceae
      • Onygena equina on old hooves and horns
        • Stalked ascomata called mazaedia
      • Ajellomyces dermatidis—blastomycosis and Ajellomyces capsulatus—histoplasmosis
        • Dimorphic, growing as yeasts at 37C and mycelium below 37C
      • Coccidioidesimmitis —Valley Fever (Coccidioidomycosis)
        • Produces arthrospores in soil, and enlarged, multinucleate spherules in host tissue
onygena equina
Onygena equina

Stalked ascomata (mazaedia)

coccidiodes immitis
Coccidiodes immitis

Arthrospores (above), sphaerules formed in host tissue (right)

arthrodermataceae
Arthrodermataceae
  • Arthroderma—cleistothecia with bone-shaped cells in walls (ossiform cells)
    • Trichophyton and Microsporum anamorphs
  • Dermatophytes—fungi that grow in the dead layer of keratinized skin
    • Ringworm
    • Athlete’s foot
    • Nail fungus
eurotiales plectomycetes
Eurotiales (Plectomycetes)
  • Thin-walled asci (prototunicate)
  • Asci scattered within cleistothecium
  • One-celled ascospores
  • Two familes:
    • Trichocomaceae
      • Aspergillus, Penicillium and Paecilomyces anamorphs
    • Pseudoeurotiaceae
aspergillus
Aspergillus

Conidia

Conidiogenous cells (phialides)

Supporting cell (branch or metulae)

Swollen apex of conidiophore (vesicle)

Conidiophore

Basal part of conidiophore (foot cell)

anamorphs aspergillus
Anamorphs--Aspergillus

SEM by Charles Mims

aspergillus flavus

Genus/Species:Aspergillus flavus

  • Image Type:Microscopic Morphology
  • Title:Stages in development of fruiting bodies
  • Disease(s): Aspergillosis
  • Legend:Stages in development of fruiting bodies. Differential interference contrast microscopy, 630X.
Aspergillus flavus

http://www.doctorfungus.org

anamorphs penicillium
Anamorphs--Penicillium

phialides

Branches (metulae)

anamorphs paecilomyces
Anamorphs--Paecilomyces

Divergent phialides with swollen base and long, tapering neck

Colonies may be pink, purple, yellow, brown or white, but never green as in Penicillium spp.

teleomorphs
Teleomorphs
  • Aspergillus:
    • Eurotium
    • Neosartorya
    • Emericella
  • Penicillium:
    • Eupenicillium
    • Talaromyces
  • Paecilomyces:
    • Byssochlamys
slide21

Eurotium

  • Aspergillus anamorph
  • Cleistothecia yellow to orange-red
  • wall composed of single layer of flattened cells
  • ascospores flattened, usually with equatorial groove.

Ascospore by D. Geiser

From Hanlin, 1998. Illustrated Genera of Ascomycetes Vol II

emericella
Emericella
  • Aspergillus anamorph
  • Cleistothecial wall surrounded by hülle cells
  • Ascospores small, colored, lens-shaped with flange

From Hanlin, 1998. Illustrated Genera of Ascomycetes Vol II

emericella23
Emericella

Hülle cells, D. Geiser

eupenicillium
Eupenicillium
  • Penicillium anamorph
  • Cleisothecia hard, white becoming colored (yellow, orange, brown)
  • Ascospores small, hyaline or yellowish, lens-shaped, often with equatorial flanges

From Hanlin, 1998. Illustrated Genera of Ascomycetes Vol II

talaromyces
Talaromyces
  • Paecilomyces or Penicillium anamorph
  • Cleistothecium whitish to bright yellow
  • Wall composed of interwoven hyphae
  • Ascospores ellipsoidal, with spiny walls

From Hanlin, 1998. Illustrated Genera of Ascomycetes Vol II

the good and the bad
The good and the bad
  • Penicillium spp.—antibiotic production
  • Penicilliumroqueforti—blue cheese
  • Penicillium spp.—blue and green molds on bread, cheese, fruits, vegetables
  • Aspergillus flavus—aflatoxins (moldy peanuts)
  • A. flavus/A. niger--aspergillosis
penicillin
Penicillin
  • Penicillium notatum growing in Alexander Fleming’s Petri dish of Staphylococcus in 1928 led to the discovery of penicillin
  • Howard Florey & Ernest Chain (1939) began work on purification and trials
  • 1941—work moved to US (NRRL in Peoria, IL) to escape bombing in London (WWII)
    • Fermentation vessels and corn steep liquor
    • Mary Hunt (“Moldy Mary”) brought in P. chyrogenum on a melon
  • 1945—Fleming, Florey & Chain received Noble Prize
penicillium notatum
Penicillium notatum

Penicillin prevents cross-linking of small peptide chains in peptidoglycan, the main wall polymer in bacteria. Newly formed cells are abnormal in shape and susceptible to osmotic lysis.