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THE STANDARD MODEL. Prepared by : Noor Suliman D.r :- Issam Rashed. : Abstract. 1-Fundamental particles( Fermions+ Bosons . 2 -The Fundamental Forces . 3 -The Force carriers. What the standard model?.

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the standard model


Prepared by : Noor Suliman

D.r:- IssamRashed


1-Fundamental particles(Fermions+ Bosons.

2-The Fundamental Forces.

3-The Force carriers.

what the standard model
What the standard model?
  • The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory of three of the four known fundamental interactions and the elementary particles that take part in these interactions. These particles make up all visible matter in the universe.
fundamental particles
:Fundamental particles
  • Fundamental particles are either the building blocks of matter, called fermions, or the carriers
  • of forces, called bosons.
  • There are twelve named fermions and four named bosons in the standard model.

- have half-integer spin

- elementary particle

- most stable of which are protons and neutrons

- six types of quarks

  • -three in the down group, each with a charge of −1/3e
  • -three in the up group, each with a charge of +2/3e
  • - leptons are solitary particles.
  • -spin-1⁄2particles
  • -does not undergo strong interactions.
  • -One of the most prominent properties of leptons is their electric charge, Q.
lepton families:
  • -Leptons are divided into
  • -electron neutrino.
  • -muonneutrino.
  • -tau neutrino.
the electromagnetic force
The electromagnetic force :
  • The electromagnetic force causes like-charged things to repel and oppositely-charged things to attract.
  • The carrier particle of the electromagnetic force is the photon  .
  •   Photons of different energies span the electromagnetic spectrum of x rays, visible light, radio waves.
the strong force
The strong force :
  • The strong force between the quarks in one proton and the quarks in another proton is strong enough to overwhelm the repulsive electromagnetic force.

-The strong force holds quarks together to form hadrons

  • -The force between color-charged particles is very strong .
  • so its carrier particles are called gluons
the weak force
The weak force:
  • are responsible for the decay of massive quarks and leptons into lighter quarks and leptons. When fundamental particles decay, it is very strange: we observe the particle vanishing and being replaced by two or more different particles.

causes transformation of protons to neutrons

  • causes transformation of protons to neutrons
  • - is massless
  • -has no charge or color
  • -is described by the theory of quantum electrodynamics (QED)
  • -have integral spin (±0, ±1, ±2, ±3, … )
  • -Gluons, photons, and the W, Z and higgs are all bosons

As the particles that make up light and other forms of electromagnetic radiation, photons are the bosons

  • All the force carrier particles are bosons, as are those composite particles with an even number of fermion particles (like mesons
  • two or more bosons may be described by the same quantum numbers.