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Topic 2: Cells Topic 1: Cells Membranes

Topic 2: Cells Topic 1: Cells Membranes

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Topic 2: Cells Topic 1: Cells Membranes

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  1. Topic 2: CellsTopic 1: CellsMembranes blog.lib.umn.edu

  2. Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of membranes (1). Explain passive transport across membranes by simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion (3). Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of the cell membranes (3) Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across membranes(3). List the functions of membrane proteins (1). Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rough endoplasmic reticulum , Golgi apparatus and plasma membrane(3). Define diffusion and osmosis (1).

  3. Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of membranes en.labs.wikimedia.org Try this interactive

  4. Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties ofphospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes The plasma membrane is almost made up entirely of protein and lipid The structure of the plasma membrane is called the fluid mosaic model because the membrane moves like a fluid and the proteins are randomly scattered about like a mosaic pattern There are three points to remember: • The phosphate heads are hydrophilic • The tails are hydrophobic • Imbedded cholesterol affects its flexibility and permeability

  5. Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties ofphospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes • 1. Hydrophilic heads • A phospholipid is composed of glycerol head with an attached ionized phosphate group (polar or charged). • The phosphate group easily forms bond with water molecules • This part of the phospholipid is hydrophilic or “waterloving” • Hydrophobic tails • The tail of the phospholipid is composed of two long fatty acid chains(tails). • The tails have hydrophobic properties or “water hating”

  6. 2.4.2 Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties ofphospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes • So… • The phospholipids arrange themselves in a bilayer with the hydrophobic tails pointing inward, away from the water and the hydrophilic heads facing out towards water of the cytoplasm or the outside of the cell • This is how the membrane maintains its structure • The plasma membrane forms a good barrier, preventing molecules from either leaving or entering the cell

  7. 2.4.2 Explain how the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties ofphospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes • The plasma membrane is also composed of cholesterol The amount of cholesterol influences the permeability and flexibility of the membrane More cholesterol makes it less permeable

  8. List the functions of membrane proteins • There are two types of membrane proteins • peripheral proteins – found on the outside of the plasma membrane • integral proteins – pass completely through the plasma membrane • these proteins have contact with both the cytoplasm and the external environment en.wikibooks.org

  9. List the functions of membrane proteins • Hormone binding sites Hormone will only bind to certain proteins. These proteins are called protein receptors • Pores (channels) for passive transport Some proteins can form hollow tubes to allow molecules to pass through the membrane 3. Cell adhesion allows cells to stick together 4. Cell-to-Cell communication The cells can communicate with each other by using hormones or neurotransmitters 5. Membrane-bound enzymes Some enzymes are attached to the membrane in a sequence to allow certain reactions to happen step-by-step

  10. 2.4.3 List the functions of membrane proteins 6. Pumps for active transport Some proteins on the cell membrane can change form in the presence of ATP (energy). This will allow some molecules to be pumped across the membrane such as ions See tutorial at: http://www.wisc-online.com/objects/ViewObject.aspx?ID=AP1101

  11. Define diffusion and osmosis • Diffusion – the movement of gas or liquid particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration • See animation at: • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_diffusion_works.html

  12. Define diffusion and osmosis • Osmosis – the diffusion of water molecules across a partially permeable • membrane, from an area of low solute concentration to an area of high • solute concentration • Solute – the substance dissolved in the liquid • Solvent – the liquid doing the dissolving • Example: Sugar and tea • Sugar is the solute • Tea is the solvent • See animation at: • http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/0072495855/student_view0/chapter2/animation__how_osmosis_works.html

  13. Explain passive transport across membranes in terms of simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion • Passive transport is the movement of molecules across a membrane without energy • The molecules generally move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached • There are two types of passive transport: • Simple Diffusion • Facilitated Diffusion 1. Simple Diffusion Non-polar molecules (steroids, glycerol, fatty acids, O2 and CO2) can easily diffuse across a membrane without help This is called “selectively permeable” – allowing only certain molecules to pass through ckgbio.blogspot.com

  14. Explain passive transport across membranes in terms of simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion 2. Facilitated Diffusion Polar molecules are unable to pass through a membrane without help They need the help of two types of globular proteins that can be found on the surface of the plasma membrane • Channel proteins create pores which allow charged particles to pass • Transport proteins (carrier proteins) have binding site for certain types of molecules. Once the molecule binds to the membrane protein it is transported across the membrane. Does not require energy http://www.bio.miami.edu/~cmallery/150/memb/c8.7x15.facilitated.diffusion.jpg

  15. 2.4.6 Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across the membrane Active transport requires energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate) Active transport is different from diffusion (simple and facilitated) in the following ways: 1. Occurs against the concentration gradient. It moves from low to high concentration The advantage of this type of transport is that cells can keep a reserve of ions inside the cell Even when the concentration is lower outside the cell, the cell can pump these ions across the membrane using active transport

  16. 2.4.6 Explain the role of protein pumps and ATP in active transport across the membrane 2. Active transport is highly selective They are specific for a particular substance 3. Active transport requires special molecules of the membrane called pump molecules Pump molecules pick up particular molecules or ions and transport them to the other side of the membrane where they are released They are integral globular proteins • They require a reaction with ATP to get the energy and drive the pump biologie.uni-hamburg.de

  17. Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rER, the Golgi apparatus and the plasma membrane Intracellular transport requires the use of vesicles The plasma membrane of the cell is basically the same as the membrane of the Golgi apparatus, the rER, and the nuclear envelope When the rER makes proteins and sends these proteins to the Golgi apparatus there is no direct connection between these organelles, because the proteins are packaged in membrane-bound vesicles Cell animation from Harvard Vesicle transport begins at 5:39 in the video

  18. Describe how the fluidity of the membrane allows it to change shape and break and reform during endocytosis and exocytosis Material can be taken into the cell (endocytosis) or removed from the cell (exocytosis) • The membrane of the golgi and ER is composed of the same structure as the plasma membrane • When the membranes touch, they become one • If solid material is taken in it is called phagocytosis • If liquid material is taken in it is called pinocytosis Fact - macrophages (white blood cells that eat debris and pathogens) engulf bacteria and dead or dying cells using endocytosis In 24 hours, the macrophages in your body breakdown 2 x 1011 red blood cells