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center. Center. First world countries. disharmony. harmony. center. Periphery. Third world, & since 1990 , Second world countries. Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model. cities; rich, elites, multi-nationals.

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Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model


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    1. center Center First world countries disharmony harmony center Periphery Third world, &since 1990, Second world countries Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model cities; rich, elites, multi-nationals Richest 10 % in the First World took 29% of total national incomes. USA: the richest 20% consume 60%; the poorest 20% consume 3%. periphery rural areas; workers, farmers, poor Poorest 10% in the First World got 2.5 % of total national incomes. cities; rich, elites, companies Richest 10% of Latin Americans took 48% of total national incomes. Columbia: 3.3 million smallholders owned 8.8% farmland; 16,500 landowners held 62.6%. periphery rural areas; workers, farmers, poor Poorest 10% of Latin Americans got 1.6% of total national incomes.

    2. periphery center Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Center-center: all of the U.S. intelligence budget & 40 % of the defense budget is secret. CIA devoted $28 billion to study the Soviet Union (USSR), yet in the 1980s they never noticed the economic collapse of the USSR. Center-center: U.S. budget for international affairs: 93% to Pentagon; 7% to State Department. Center-center: 1.4 million U.S. military people around the world in 725 military bases from Iceland to Japan. Center-center: British empire on the eve of the World War I had a trade surplus of 7% of GDP; USA, for the last 15 years, has had a trade deficit of 5% every year – imperial overreach?

    3. Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Infected web sites (IP addresses) and submarine fiber-optic cables. Center-center: all of the US intelligence budget & 40 % of the defense budget is secret. CIA devoted $28 billion to study the Soviet Union (USSR), yet in the 1980s they never noticed the economic collapse of the USSR. Center-center: US budget for international affairs: 93% to Pentagon; 7% to State Department. Center-center: 1.4 million US military people around the world in 725 military bases from Iceland to Japan. Center-center: British empire on the eve of the World War I had a trade surplus of 7% of GDP; USA, for the last 15 years, has had a trade deficit of 5% every year – imperial overreach?

    4. Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Three Stages of Imperialism 1) plunder 2) barter In 2008, 72 % of Americans haggled compared with 56 % in 2007. They were successful about 80 % of the time. 3) monetary exchange: Since World War II, the USA has dominated world financial institutions, such as the World Bank and Internal Monetary Fund (IMF), world trade organizations (GATT and WTO), and regional trade associations (NAFTA and FTAA). Meanwhile, illegal, or underground, economies play important roles: 8% of GDP in USA; 25% in Greece; 22% in Italy

    5. Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Five Types of Imperialism • economic: US blockades of Cuba, Nicaragua, etc. in violation of United Nation resolutions • political: Chile, 1973 – 400 USA CIA agents assisted Augusto Pinochet, commander-in-chief of the army, to kill President Salvador Allende and overthrow his freely elected socialist government. US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger said: Chilean people were irresponsible in voting for Allende! • military: US invasions of Vietnam ($500 billion), Panama (3,000 killed), Grenada, Afghanistan and Iraq ($1 trillion): over 730 military bases around the world • communication, e.g., US computer expertise, air travel in English • cultural, e.g., movies, music: US movies 83% of global cinema box-office revenues

    6. Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model

    7. Galtung’s Center-Periphery Model Summary of US Imperialism in Latin America Mexico lost about half its territory to the United States in the war of 1846-48. Only 11% of the Mexicans have mainly a favorable view USA. Cubans resents the United States ever since 1898, when their hard- and long-fought war of independence against Spain was stolen from them by the yanquis in the Spanish-American War. The United States had made some 30 military interventions in and around the Caribbean by the early 20th century, many of them under Smedley Butler, a marine corps general, who summed up his career and the attitude of the USA government: “I helped make Honduras “right” for American fruit companies in 1903. I helped make Mexico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys to collect revenues in. I helped in the raping of half a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-12. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for American sugar interests in 1916.”