Development and Environmentalism. Exploitation/domination/ etc comes frequently in the form of core-based multinational corporations causing economic change in periphery cultures (i.e.: Shell Oil and Nigeria).
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etc comes frequently in the form of core-based multinational corporations causing economic change in periphery cultures (i.e.: Shell Oil and Nigeria).
Disempowered woman are the major target of discrimination, mistreatment, physical and sexual assault, prostitution, and sexually-transmitted diseases among indigenous cultures world-wide
- to study the condition of different types of economic activities of indigenous peoples as the basis for the preservation of their traditional nature use and socio-cultural values, as well as their main source of income; DIVERSITY!!!!
- to identify the level of ethno-social destruction – unemployment, poverty, growth of deviant behavior, etc…
- to analyze the process of marginalization of mass consciousness regarding the fundamentals of the future development of indigenous people locally and all people globally
Scott, J C (1990). Domination and the Arts of Resistance: The Hidden Transcript of Subordinate Groups
Gramsci’s (1971) notion of hegemony describes a politically hierarchical system where the dominant ideology of the “elite” has been internalized by the lower classes.
Examples of antiauthoritarian discourse include rituals (e.g., Carnival, the caroling/wassailing celebrations), folk literature (Robin Hood, etc), and oral traditions (stories of revolt by someone else).
Resistance is more likely to be public when the oppressed come together in groups (for example anti-assembly laws of the antebellum South, or perhaps modern “Free Speech Zones”).
The region of Oceania is comprised of Australia, Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia.
The original inhabitants of this vast area included Aborigines, Melanesians, and Austronesians.
The various forms of social organization and isolation gave rise to a large diversity of languages and customs among indigenous groups in the region.
Perhaps 40,000 to 60,000 years of inhabitation…
VERY SUSTAINABLE - Staying within “carrying capacity”
Flexibility in social organization
Little changes in population size; no full scale farming.
No depletion of resources? Spiritually controlled…
4-7 hours work per day in gathering & cooking
Efficiency in resource use
Broad spectrum Subsistence.
Seafood on coasts; grass seeds, lizards, kangaroo, moths, witchity grubs.
Population control via varied methods common to foragers
spearthrower (the woomera),
fire making tools (spear thrower shaft, generally pressure tool)
What is it? How is it used?
Balance of all things
Prehistorical period during which the natural environment was shaped and humanized by the actions of mythic beings.
Many of these beings took the form of human beings or of animals (“totemic”); some changed their forms.
They were credited with having established the local social order and its “laws.”
'Dreamtime' or 'Dreaming' has never been a direct translation of an Aboriginal word. The English language does not know an equivalent to express the complex Aboriginal spiritual concepts to white people.
Aboriginal languages contain a lot of words for spirituality and beliefs, such as:
tjurkurrpa, jukurrpa, tjurgurba (Pitjantjatjara people, north-western South Australia),
altjeringa, alcheringa, alchera, aldjerinya (Arrernte people, central Australia),
ungud (Ngarinyin people, north-Western Australia),
wongar (north eastern Arnhem Land),
bugari (Broome, north-Western Australia).
Aboriginal spirituality does not consider the 'Dreamtime' as a time past, in fact not as a time at all. Time refers to past, present and future but the 'Dreamtime' is none of these.
The Dreamtime is the environment that the Aboriginal lived in, and it still exists today, all around us.
It is important to note that the Dreaming always also comprises the significance of place .
The Dreaming perhaps better the timeless concept of moving from 'dream' to reality which in itself is an act of creation and the basis of many Aboriginal creation myths.
None of the hundreds of Aboriginal languages contain a word for time.
Totemic exogamous clans called “Moieties”
Tribal Dialects but most of Australian language intelligeble
Father's + mother's + spouse's rights determined through the Law.
Birth rights to territory/kin.
moieties (either matri- or patri-lineal)
Marriage sections: only 1 available for marriage
Moiety: Either of two kinship groups based on unilateral descent that together make up a tribe or society.
Old men know most about Dreamtime (stories/enviro knowledge).
Female rituals for health.
Reciprocity through kinship obligations
Europeans first contacted this area in 1521, when the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan landed on the Micronesian island of Guam (now a US colony)
The region was officially divided among colonial powers in the early 19th century.
The colonial powers included Japan, France, Britain, the US, and Germany
Similarly to other experiences around the world, colonial powers emphasized extractive enterprises like export agriculture and mining.
Indigenous people were often displaced from their land and were exposed to exotic diseases for which they had no immunity
A contrasting view of indigenous
people that survives today:
Does civilization actually improve the quality of human life?
Negative affects of European colonialism coupled with local experiences with the industrial revolution drew into question the benefits of civilization.
From a romanticists perspective “primitive” people lived a fuller more egalitarian life. They were untouched by the corrupting influence of civilization and industrialization.
Until 1993 the Australian government viewed Aboriginal people to have no land rights because within their culture they had “no fixed abode, fields or flocks, nor internal hierarchical differentiation”
This belief translated into the displacement of Aboriginal people from their land to make room for European settlement.
Into the 1960s Aborigines had extremely limited citizenship rights (like the right to vote) and the government maintained an extremely paternalistic attitude toward Aborigines, like making it illegal for them to consume alcohol.
This change reflects broader changes in attitudes about being indigenous.
People began to recognize that colonial attitudes were largely responsible for the low social standing and impoverishment of Aboriginal people.
Additionally, European and Aboriginal interaction and cohabitation became more common.
In 2006 a report was issued on the status of 60 Aboriginal Settlement Camps in Northern Territory Australia
The report found that alcohol, drugs, pornography, and unemployment were responsible for high levels of child abuse, child pornography, and a break-down of Aboriginal culture.
In 2007, Prime Minister John Howard labeled this a “national emergency” and has sent police and soldiers into Aboriginal settlement camps.
They are to enforce a ban on alcohol and pornography, order compulsory health checks on children under 16, and stopwelfare payments to parents whose children failed to attend school
American and Australian indigenous assimilation systems
When she was growing up, Rose recalls, "the agents were sending out police on horseback to locate children to enroll [in school].
Although these two stories sound similar, they took place in almost opposite corners of the world in the early twentieth century.
By 1909, there were over 25 off-reservation boarding schools, 157 on-reservation boarding schools, and 307 day schools in operation.
Carl Schurz, at that time a former Commissioner of Indian Affairs, concluded that Native peoples had “this stern alternative: extermination or civilization.”
Pratt’s rationale in his schools was “Kill the Indian in order to save the Man.”
For the most part schools primarily prepared Native boys for manual labor or farming and Native girls for domestic work.
The rationale for choosing cultural rather than physical genocide was often economic.
In 1987, the FBI found that one teacher at the BIA-run Hopi day school in Arizona, John Boone, had sexually abused over 142 boys, but the school’s principal had never investigated any allegations of abuse.
In one case, Terry Hester admitted on his job application that he has been arrested for child sexual abuse.
Thousands of children died in these schools, through beatings, medical neglect, malnutrition, and suicide.
The Indian Child Protection Act passed in 1990 to provide a registry for sexual offenders in Indian country, mandate a reporting system, provide rigid guidelines for BIA and Indian Health Services for doing background checks on prospective employees, and provide education to parents, school officials and law enforcement on how to recognize sexual abuse.
On December 6, 2004, Cindy Sohappy was found dead in a holding cell in Chemawa Boarding School (Oregon) where she had been placed after she became intoxicated.
The school has been warned for the past fifteen years from federal health officials in Indian Health Services about the dangers of holding cells, but these warnings were ignored.
The U.S. has made no attempt to address the legacies of boarding school abuses.