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KNR 282 Biomechanics of Human Movement

KNR 282 Biomechanics of Human Movement

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KNR 282 Biomechanics of Human Movement

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  1. KNR 282Biomechanics of Human Movement Dr. David Q. Thomas http://www.castonline.ilstu.edu/Thomas/

  2. Kudos • Credit goes to Dr. McCaw for his contributions to these slides.

  3. Why study biomechanics? • Traditional teaching and coaching methods tell you what techniques to teach or coach

  4. Why study biomechanics? • Biomechanics tells you why those techniques are best to teach or coach • It can also tell you why some teaching and coaching techniques don’t work and need to be discontinued

  5. Why study biomechanics? • AT, OT, and PT students will benefit from learning biomechanics because it will help in: • determining the cause of injury, • aid in preventing future injury, • and guide in determining best methods for rehabilitation.

  6. Why study biomechanics? • Exercise science students will learn the best techniques for improving fitness and enhancing exercise performance

  7. Why study biomechanics? • PETE students will learn how to make instructional decisions based on the science of human movement

  8. Learning Biomechanics • I will provide you with • Concept • Examples • You need to come up with • Application • How does this concept apply to: • Physical Education Teacher Education? • Exercise Science? • Athletic Training?

  9. Kinesiology • Kines: Latin ==> “motion” • logos: “study of” • Kinesiology = Study of Motion

  10. Kinesiology Includes: • Anatomy & Physiology • Psychology • Motor Development • Pedagogy • Biomechanics • Exercise Physiology • Athletic Training

  11. Biomechanics • Bio = life • Mechanics - study of machines • Biomechanics - study of living machines

  12. science concerned with effects of forces acting on a system (body)

  13. Why study biomechanics? • We study biomechanics to understand how people move • This information may be used to enhance performance by improving technique • It may also be used to lower the risk for injury

  14. Why study biomechanics? • Enhance skill performance • Technique improvement • Improve current technique (shooting a foul shot) • Develop new technique (Fosbury Flop, swim hand recovery, skating in X-country skiing, ski jumping) • Equipment improvement • Shoes and apparel • Implements • Protection devices • Training improvement

  15. Why study biomechanics? • Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation • Techniques to reduce injury • Equipment designs to reduce injury

  16. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand howliving bodies can move. Edward Muybridge

  17. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. Edward Muybridge

  18. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhanceskill performance • elite athletes • USOC, WNBA, MLB, etc • Biomechanics in the Olympics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csrb-GCUxzg&feature=related

  19. Enhancing Skill Performance • An example using anthropometrics

  20. Anthropometrics Study of the body’s size and form

  21. Anthropometrics This would include measurements of: • Height • Weight • Circumferences • Skinfolds • Girths/diameters • Etc

  22. Ball comparison, NBA vs WNBA 7.78/0.288 = 27.014 inches

  23. Why study biomechanics? • To allow for comparisons

  24. Strength Males Versus Females

  25. Why study biomechanics? • Destroy myths

  26. Why study Biomechanics? Can a cow really jump over the moon? http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~dmason/probs/mech/work/cowmoon/cowmoon.html

  27. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhanceskill performance • physical challenges • ACL deficit • CP gait • Wheelchair • Age-related disease

  28. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhance skill performance • physical challenges • ACL deficit • CP gait • Wheelchair • Age-related disease

  29. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhance skill performance • Physical development

  30. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhance skill performance • Improve equipment

  31. Biomechanics and Safety

  32. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhance skill performance • Not limited to humans

  33. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhanceskill performance • To lower the risk for injury • Exercise equipment & technique • shoes & surfaces • braces & orthotics • Equine biomechanics http://www.equinemechanics.com/

  34. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhanceskill performance • To lower the risk for injury • Automobiles • collisions http://collisionresearchltd.com/index.php

  35. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhanceskill performance • To lower the risk for injury • Automobiles • collisions

  36. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. Vsevolod Meyerhold’s Biomechanical Theatre 1920’s

  37. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. Borelli

  38. Borelli • Borelli’s major scientific achievements are focused around his investigation into biomechanics. This work originated with his studies of animals. His publications, De Motu Animalium I and De Motu Animalium II, relate animals to machines and utilize mathematics to prove his theories. The anatomists of the 17th century were the first to suggest the contractile movement of muscles. Borelli, however, first suggested that ‘muscles do not exercise vital movement otherwise than by contracting.’ He was also the first to deny corpuscular influence on the movements of muscles. This was proven through his scientific experiments demonstrating that living muscle did not release corpuscles into water when cut. Borelli also recognized that forward motion entailed movement of a body’s center of gravity forward, which was then followed by the swinging of its limbs in order to maintain balance. His studies also extended beyond muscle and locomotion. In particular he likened the action of the heart to that of a piston. For this to work properly he derived the idea that the arteries have be elastic. For these discoveries, Borelli is labeled as the father of modern biomechanics. • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Alfonso_Borelli

  39. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhanceskill performance • To lower the risk for injury

  40. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhanceskill performance • To lower the risk for injury

  41. Why study Biomechanics? • To understand how people can move. • To enhanceskill performance • To lower the risk for injury

  42. Why do we need biomechanics? • Some of us are not doing a good job • Coach: focus on strategy • Teaching • skills: “farm system” • vs • fitness: CV & strength • Cater to the converted. • Serve the skilled. • We treat symptoms of an injury, with less emphasis on etiology (cause) of an injury • placebo effect vs true treatment effects • high rate of reoccurrence Safety & Performance Trade-Off

  43. Need for biomechanics in children’s sports

  44. Problem-solving approach: • Quantitative analysis - mainly a clinical research perspective. • Qualitative analysis - most teachers/coaches need this ability.

  45. Mechanics • Science concerned with the effects of forces acting on objects (body) • body: focus of the analysis • human body • individual body segment • specific tissue / anatomical site • balls, pucks • implement: bat, stick, club

  46. Mechanics • Science concerned with the effects of forces acting on objects (body) • Rigid-body mechanics • Deformable body mechanics • Fluid mechanics • Relativistic mechanics • Quantum mechanics

  47. Rigid Body Mechanics • Acceptable for analyzing gross movements • Assumptions • body does not deform by bending, stretching or compressing • segments are rigid linksjoined by frictionless hingesat joints

  48. Rigid Body Mechanics