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KNR 282 Biomechanics of Human Movement. Dr. David Q. Thomas http://www.castonline.ilstu.edu/Thomas/. Kudos. Credit goes to Dr. McCaw for his contributions to these slides. Why study biomechanics?. Traditional teaching and coaching methods tell you what techniques to teach or coach.

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knr 282 biomechanics of human movement

KNR 282Biomechanics of Human Movement

Dr. David Q. Thomas

http://www.castonline.ilstu.edu/Thomas/

kudos
Kudos
  • Credit goes to Dr. McCaw for his contributions to these slides.
why study biomechanics
Why study biomechanics?
  • Traditional teaching and coaching methods tell you what techniques to teach or coach
why study biomechanics5
Why study biomechanics?
  • Biomechanics tells you why those techniques are best to teach or coach
  • It can also tell you why some teaching and coaching techniques don’t work and need to be discontinued
why study biomechanics6
Why study biomechanics?
  • AT, OT, and PT students will benefit from learning biomechanics because it will help in:
    • determining the cause of injury,
    • aid in preventing future injury,
    • and guide in determining best methods for rehabilitation.
why study biomechanics7
Why study biomechanics?
  • Exercise science students will learn the best techniques for improving fitness and enhancing exercise performance
why study biomechanics8
Why study biomechanics?
  • PETE students will learn how to make instructional decisions based on the science of human movement
learning biomechanics
Learning Biomechanics
  • I will provide you with
    • Concept
    • Examples
  • You need to come up with
    • Application
      • How does this concept apply to:
        • Physical Education Teacher Education?
        • Exercise Science?
        • Athletic Training?
kinesiology
Kinesiology
  • Kines: Latin ==> “motion”
  • logos: “study of”
  • Kinesiology = Study of Motion
kinesiology11
Kinesiology

Includes:

  • Anatomy & Physiology
  • Psychology
  • Motor Development
  • Pedagogy
  • Biomechanics
  • Exercise Physiology
  • Athletic Training
biomechanics
Biomechanics
  • Bio = life
  • Mechanics - study of machines
  • Biomechanics - study of living machines
slide14

science concerned with

effects of forces acting

on a system (body)

why study biomechanics15
Why study biomechanics?
  • We study biomechanics to understand how people move
  • This information may be used to enhance performance by improving technique
  • It may also be used to lower the risk for injury
why study biomechanics16
Why study biomechanics?
  • Enhance skill performance
    • Technique improvement
      • Improve current technique (shooting a foul shot)
      • Develop new technique (Fosbury Flop, swim hand recovery, skating in X-country skiing, ski jumping)
    • Equipment improvement
      • Shoes and apparel
      • Implements
      • Protection devices
    • Training improvement
why study biomechanics17
Why study biomechanics?
  • Injury Prevention and Rehabilitation
    • Techniques to reduce injury
    • Equipment designs to reduce injury
why study biomechanics18
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand howliving bodies can move.

Edward Muybridge

why study biomechanics19
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.

Edward Muybridge

why study biomechanics20
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhanceskill performance
      • elite athletes
        • USOC, WNBA, MLB, etc
        • Biomechanics in the Olympics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=csrb-GCUxzg&feature=related
enhancing skill performance
Enhancing Skill Performance
  • An example using anthropometrics
anthropometrics
Anthropometrics

Study of the body’s size and form

anthropometrics23
Anthropometrics

This would include measurements of:

  • Height
  • Weight
  • Circumferences
  • Skinfolds
  • Girths/diameters
  • Etc
ball comparison nba vs wnba
Ball comparison, NBA vs WNBA

7.78/0.288 = 27.014 inches

why study biomechanics25
Why study biomechanics?
  • To allow for comparisons
slide26

Strength

Males

Versus

Females

why study biomechanics28
Why study Biomechanics?

Can a cow really jump over the moon?

http://zebu.uoregon.edu/~dmason/probs/mech/work/cowmoon/cowmoon.html

why study biomechanics29
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhanceskill performance
      • physical challenges
        • ACL deficit
        • CP gait
        • Wheelchair
        • Age-related disease
why study biomechanics30
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhance skill performance
      • physical challenges
        • ACL deficit
        • CP gait
        • Wheelchair
        • Age-related disease
why study biomechanics31
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhance skill performance
      • Physical development
why study biomechanics32
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how

people can move.

    • To enhance

skill performance

      • Improve equipment
slide33

Biomechanics

and Safety

why study biomechanics34
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhance skill performance
      • Not limited to humans
why study biomechanics35
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhanceskill performance
    • To lower the risk for injury
      • Exercise equipment & technique
      • shoes & surfaces
      • braces & orthotics
      • Equine biomechanics

http://www.equinemechanics.com/

why study biomechanics36
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhanceskill performance
    • To lower the risk for injury
      • Automobiles
        • collisions

http://collisionresearchltd.com/index.php

why study biomechanics37
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhanceskill performance
    • To lower the risk for injury
      • Automobiles
      • collisions
why study biomechanics38
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.

Vsevolod Meyerhold’s Biomechanical Theatre

1920’s

why study biomechanics39
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.

Borelli

borelli
Borelli
  • Borelli’s major scientific achievements are focused around his investigation into biomechanics. This work originated with his studies of animals. His publications, De Motu Animalium I and De Motu Animalium II, relate animals to machines and utilize mathematics to prove his theories. The anatomists of the 17th century were the first to suggest the contractile movement of muscles. Borelli, however, first suggested that ‘muscles do not exercise vital movement otherwise than by contracting.’ He was also the first to deny corpuscular influence on the movements of muscles. This was proven through his scientific experiments demonstrating that living muscle did not release corpuscles into water when cut. Borelli also recognized that forward motion entailed movement of a body’s center of gravity forward, which was then followed by the swinging of its limbs in order to maintain balance. His studies also extended beyond muscle and locomotion. In particular he likened the action of the heart to that of a piston. For this to work properly he derived the idea that the arteries have be elastic. For these discoveries, Borelli is labeled as the father of modern biomechanics.
          • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Giovanni_Alfonso_Borelli
why study biomechanics41
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhanceskill performance
    • To lower the risk for injury
why study biomechanics42
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhanceskill performance
    • To lower the risk for

injury

why study biomechanics43
Why study Biomechanics?
  • To understand how people can move.
    • To enhanceskill performance
    • To lower the risk for injury
why do we need biomechanics
Why do we need biomechanics?
  • Some of us are not doing a good job
    • Coach: focus on strategy
    • Teaching
      • skills: “farm system”
      • vs
      • fitness: CV & strength
  • Cater to the converted.
  • Serve the skilled.
  • We treat symptoms of an injury, with less emphasis on etiology (cause) of an injury
    • placebo effect vs true treatment effects
    • high rate of reoccurrence

Safety & Performance Trade-Off

problem solving approach
Problem-solving approach:
  • Quantitative analysis - mainly a clinical research perspective.
  • Qualitative analysis - most teachers/coaches need this ability.
mechanics
Mechanics
  • Science concerned with the effects of forces acting on objects (body)
    • body: focus of the analysis
      • human body
      • individual body segment
      • specific tissue / anatomical site
      • balls, pucks
      • implement: bat, stick, club
mechanics48
Mechanics
  • Science concerned with the effects of forces acting on objects (body)
    • Rigid-body mechanics
    • Deformable body mechanics
    • Fluid mechanics
    • Relativistic mechanics
    • Quantum mechanics
rigid body mechanics
Rigid Body Mechanics
  • Acceptable for analyzing gross movements
  • Assumptions
    • body does not deform by bending, stretching or compressing
    • segments are rigid linksjoined by frictionless hingesat joints
basic dimensions of biomechanics
Basic Dimensions of Biomechanics
  • Length - of what size?
  • Time - of what duration?
  • Mass - how much matter?
  • Inertia - what resistance to movement?
basic dimensions in mechanics
Basic dimensions in mechanics
  • Describe someone out for a run
basic dimensions in mechanics53
Basic dimensions in mechanics
  • Describe someone out for a run
    • Kinematics
      • How far did she run?
      • How long to run that far?
      • How fast was she?
      • How big is she?
    • Kinetics
      • What friction under her feet?
      • What forces on her joints?
      • What tension in her muscles?
length
Length
  • Measure to describe
    • location at a particular point in her run
    • how far she ran
  • Feet, inches, miles
  • Systeme Internationale d’Unites (SI)
    • meter
    • 1 m = 3.28 feet = 39 inches

http://physics.nist.gov/cuu/Units/

slide55
Time
  • Measure to describe how long it takes her
  • seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, years
  • Systeme Internationale d’Unites (SI)
    • second (s)
length time motion
Length & time = motion
  • Space to move in and time during which to move
  • speed & velocity==> length per unit of time
    • miles per hour
    • m / s or m . sec-1
  • acceleration
    • m/s/s or m . sec-1 . sec-1
inertia
Inertia
  • Inertia
    • resistance to a change in state of motion
  • Who is harder to start or stop moving
    • Olympic weight lifter
    • Olympic gymnast
inertia58
Inertia
  • Inertia
    • resistance to a change in state of motion
  • Who is harder to start or stop moving
    • Olympic weight lifter: has more inertia
    • Olympic gymnast
inertia and mass
Inertia and Mass
  • Inertia
    • resistance to a change in state of motion
  • Mass
    • the quantity of matter a body possesses
    • quantifies inertia (the measure of inertia)
      • Greater mass, greater inertia
        • resistance to change state of motion
    • units are kilogram (kg) or slug (English)
    • Not the same as weight
importance of inertia mass
Importance of Inertia & Mass
  • Provide an example of changing motion in
    • sport
    • exercise
    • workplace
importance of inertia mass61
Importance of Inertia & Mass
  • Provide an example of changing motion in
    • Sport: size expectations of different positions (i.e. interior defensive linemen)
    • Exercise: alter mass to be moved to increase load on NMS system (i.e. push-up)
    • Workplace: alter mass of components to reduce load (i.e. cement bags, engine blocks)
3 basic dimensions
3 basic dimensions
  • Length
  • Time
  • Mass
  • Force: defined from the above
    • a push or pull acting on a body

All that is needed to describe

and explain the motion of objects

slide66

Biomechanics

Lab at ISU

Research

Not to know is bad.

Not to wish to know is worse.