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Cheshire Country Council, United Kingdom. Provincia di Avellino, Italy. E nvironmental U pgrading of urban areas through TOU rism - EUTOU. Hainan Provincial Tourism Administration, Republic of China. Asia Urbs, Europe Aid Co-operation Office. Cultural Tourism Best Practices

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e nvironmental u pgrading of urban areas through tou rism eutou

Cheshire Country Council, United Kingdom

Provincia di Avellino, Italy

Environmental Upgrading of urban areasthrough TOUrism - EUTOU

Hainan Provincial Tourism Administration, Republic of China

Asia Urbs, Europe Aid Co-operation Office

Cultural Tourism Best Practices

Dr. Alessandra Bianchi


EUTOU defined best practices of eco-tourism development and – more in deep – cases where tourism flow could be moved from consolidate areas towards undeveloped ones, throughout the following steps:


  • Italian features in the field of successful tourism development and management
  • Assessment of strength and weakness points in Italian tourism
  • Tourism typologies
  • Italian policies for tourism development
  • Assessment of Hainan/ Wuzhishan market
  • Conclusions


  • Themes of best practice for Wuzhishan City tourism development
analysis 1 italian characteristics in the field of tourism market
ANALYSIS 1 Italian Characteristics in the field of tourism market

Tourism in Italy is a well-established field. Italian tourism industry has been developed from the first years of XIX century, through an excellent advertising campaign that was the Grand Tour and the Romantic Age. By a WTO analysis, Italy is the fourth destination in the world with almost 50.000 arrivals in a year.The success of this business is a wide offer of attractors, facilities and events in the frame of Italian historical cities and natural beauties. The features of Italian tourism market are the following:

  • ancient tourist development
  • wide range of attractors
  • capability to link a wide range of attractors
  • several tourism typologies
  • national and international tourism flows
analysis 2 assessment of strength and weakness points of italian tourism
ANALYSIS 2 Assessment of strength and weakness points of Italian tourism

In order of assess the Italian tourism industry, the analysis of the strongest points highlights the following items:

  • wide range of facilities and accommodation
  • capability to create a net of minor attractions linked with one (or more) bigger (tourist district)
  • capability to create events
  • capability to enhance the historical and cultural heritage
  • good training of tourist operators
  • good English and other European languages speaking
  • capability to develop new flows close to consolidated one
  • medium and small enterprises acting in tourism development
analysis 2 assessment of strength and weakness points of italian tourism5
ANALYSIS 2 Assessment of strength and weakness points of Italian tourism

The weakness points involve a complex mix of features that represent an objective handicap for the present condition of tourism industry. Especially it points out several impacts that tourism generates and/or more direct and indirect costs in terms of environment degradation and social behaviour.

It could be described as the following:

  • lack of tourism planning
  • high costs in terms of environmental and social impacts
  • loss of sense of place in mass tourism destinations
  • strong gap between the development of costal areas and internal ones
  • lack of strategies in terms of control of prices
  • lack of policies in the field of certification of quality (facilities, transport, environment)
  • lack of control in the field of monument avaibility
analysis 3 tourism typologies of cultural tourism market
ANALYSIS 3 Tourism Typologies of Cultural Tourism Market
  • Consolidated flows:
    • beach tourism
    • cultural tourism
  • New flows:
    • ecological tourism
    • typical products routes
    • rural tourism
  • archaeological heritage
  • historical towns
  • art and architecture
  • cultural events
  • natural parks
  • sport facilities
  • wellness facilities
  • landscape beauty
  • agricultural heritage
analysis 5 needs for the eco cultural tourist
ANALYSIS 5 Needs for the eco-cultural tourist

To better understand the needs and the kind of facilities that are linked to eco-cultural tourism development, WTO, in the frame of the First World Summit of Eco-tourism held in Quebec City, Canada, in 2002, defined a profile of tourist’s demands:

- no mass tourism destinations, no standard offers, no seasonality

  • search for new destinations, original and typical products
  • search for destinations that present high quality and a wide offer of facilities
  • responsible tourism
  • search for local culture
  • search for authentic daily life experience with local communities
  • satisfaction of emotional needs
analysis 6 features of tourism market in hainan wuzhishan
ANALYSIS 6 Features of tourism market in Hainan / Wuzhishan

Hainan island is a well known tourist destination both for national market and Asian one. As targeted on 25 Years Plan it is one of the seven major regions where tourism development is given priority, designed as a tropical island holiday resort. Natural beauty is the main attraction joint with cultural attraction. According to the Hainan Province Master Plan and in order to transfer a useful know-how, italian best practices are focused on the following features of Hainan island:

  • Good development of tourism market
  • Major national tourist flows and minor overseas flows
  • Exclusive set of attractors
  • Well developed coastal areas
  • Less developed internal areas

In this frame a special attention is given to eco-cultural tourism strategies, to enhance the island’s attractions, improve life quality and avoid tourism impacts. In the present document environmental risks will be pointed out also.

analysis 6 strength and weakness points of hainan tourism market

its geographic location close to Asian markets

its attractive and largely undeveloped coastline and internal areas

its good transport infrastructure

good resorts on the coast

low prices

good appeal for domestic market

well known destination for regional market

area free from terrorism risk

Weakness points

- No clear image of Hainan for international long haul

No English spoken

Difficulties to travel on your own

Needs of VISA and no possibility of buying it on the island

absence of integrated net

absence of organic strategy for promotion and commercialization

damaged image caused by sanitary risks (SARS, chicken disease, …)

ANALYSIS 6 Strength and weakness points of Hainan tourism market

From the Tourism Master Plan and from the partners visits features of Hainan market are pointed out :

Moreover this analysis has to consider the inner fragilities of natural beauties and the risk of tourism impacts on social minorities.

conclusions targets of tourism development
CONCLUSIONSTargets of tourism development

To compile best practices for Wuzhishan tourism development, a set of targets was pointed out from the analysis of Italian and Hainan tourism market:

- Increase of tourism market in terms of eco-cultural typologies

  • Implement tourism development in terms of sustainable features
  • Enhance local specificities
  • Protect natural beauty, cultural heritage and local communities
  • Implement Tourism Master Plan in terms of building construction typologies, minimize impacts of new buildings, promote innovation in technologies’ uses.

These targets can be detailed for Wuzhishan development as the following:

- From mass tourism to sustainable tourism

  • From indistinctive tourist facilities to an attractive stay
utap actions
UTAP Actions


1 created a tourist district
A cultural district is an offer system circumscribed in space in an area featured by a high density of cultural and environmental resources with a high quality standard, integration among tourism activities and a high development of connected productive sectors.

The weakness point in the application of this strategy is the not easy balance between the offer system and the huge size of the potential request.

Connected policies

Build a positive, young and active image of summer tourism in the mountains

Enhance land quality

Save mountain agriculture

Try to make ski slopes attractive also for non skiers

Create an info-point net


Ameliorate the tourist offices network

Promote sports and activities such as,trekking, open space shows and tourist entertainment

Urban upgrading of compromised sites

Creation of a hospitality network


Paths upkeeping

Intergenerational tourism

Wellness: “wine therapy” and “hay therapy”


Wide target of consumers searching for a“total leisure experience” + low prices

1. Created a tourist district
2 gave a new life to a local traditional tourist product
To improve an old tourism offersystem it’s necessary to add new elements. In fact to lenghthen tourists stayand tourism seasonality, a new mixof tourist attractors is needed.

Increasing tourist offer and elements of interest givesa double result:lenghthen tourists stayand the average expense pro capite where tourism exists orattract new tourism flows where there aren’t.

In the Hainan case,the well known beach tourism destinations,can easily carry out this strategy.


Enhancement of minor attractors

Enhancement of natural beauties

Create a tourism offer systemthat satisfies the need of appearance

Customer satisfaction

Promotion towards very high income users segments


Urban upgrading

Design Excellence

Creation of a netof specialized infrastructures for new users


Urban upkeeping

Environmental upgrading

wellness: spas, massage

Creation of cosmetics new brands

2. Gave a new life to a local traditional tourist product
3 created a typical quality offer

Build a typical image strongly connected with the land

Enhance farm productionsand connected agroindustries

Enhance land

Enhance cultural and folk heritage

Comunication campaign on specifical targets

Create an info point network


Typical products Marketing

Urban upgrading and environmental safeguarding

Creation of a hospitatility network


Building and environmental maintenance

Poulation involvement

Local operators Training as development agents

Eco-tourism Promotion


An informed tourist, that well knows visited sites and at the same time wants a unique experience.

The aim was to create an offer system that could satisfy needs of particular groups of tourists such as:environmental cultural and ecologictourismflows :

products and activities rich in significance, in idendity and authentic

socialization with local inhabitants

deep knowledge of relevant aspects of the visited land

fruition of goods and services with a high emotional level

3. Created a typical quality offer
4 enhanced the emotional meaning of the offer
The suggested strategy createda high emotional contents tourism offerthat featuresattractivity for all tourism typologies.Key element for this strategy isthe capability to recall events, myths, legends; give life toruins, rocks andtrees, creating, for each visitor, emotionsconnected to an immaterial experience.


Training for local operators, for the comunication of emotional events

Enhance cultural, landscape and natural resources

Customer satisfaction

Create promotional channels

Create an exchange system amongactivities and emotionsand tourists and inhabitants


Historical sites rehabilitation and restauration

Local animation

Creation of eventsin line with the sites reflection on the outside


Urban maintenance

Environmental upgrading

Movie location


Wide segment of usersthat have a deep knowledge of the visited site.

4. Enhanced the emotional meaning of the offer
5 kept a leadership in costs strategy
In old times it was seen as the carrying out of a low price strategythat weighed upon the offered services’ quality. In present daysit’s just a strategythat moves visitors away from destinationsthat presentsimilar tourist services but are well-knownin the international orin the promotional market.

Connected Policies

Comunication through wide diffusion channels


All inclusive tourist offers

Discount rates in full season


Improve the offer system’s efficiency in organization and productiveness

Satisfaction of a standard threshold in tourism offer


Mass tourism

5. Kept a leadership in costs strategy
themes of best practices
Themes of best practices
  • create a tourist district
  • create a wide offer of facilities
  • create a typical, high quality offer
  • enhance the emotional meaning of tourism offer
  • Leadership in costs strategy



  • GOAL
  • strategies
  • Protect natural beauties and cultural heritage
  • Catch pioneer tourism flows
  • Integrated control of tourism offer quality in terms of sustainability
  • Involve local communities in a integrated program of training and territorial activities
  • Enhance originality of tourism offer
  • policies
strategies and policies examples
Strategies and Policies examples
  • Create a wide offer of facilities
  • Involve local communities in a integrated program of training and territorial activities
best practice tables construction pattern eutou case
Best practice tables construction pattern:EUTOU CASE

A description of study case and issues of interest in EUTOU project.

  • Study case
  • Study case features
  • Predominant kind of tourism
  • Adopted methodology
  • Reference target
  • Opportunities
  • Weakness points
  • Analogies with Hainan/Wuzhishan
  • Achieved results
  • Work in progress/Impacts
  • Links

It highlights strategies and projects adopted to increase tourism and the tourist target selected

Assessment of adopted strategies and projects

It points out elements that could be used for WZ development

Detailed description of results and a list of issues that are going to be solved

List of web sites in which is possible to have more information about the study case

Study case

Study case features

Predominant kind of tourism

Adopted methodology

Reference target


The Park area, of 181.048 Ha, is composed of 86 muniipalities and mountain communities. It’s land is very heterogeneous since there are high mountains, valleys, hills and seashores in this big environment. It has always been a land of migration, especially in the internal areas. In fact, there is a big difference, due to tourism as well, between inland poor and almost abandoned areas and towns and the coastline, where there are also problems due to human impact on the environment.

Develop a high quality tourism proposal oriented towards services and demand and able of organizing and promote all different segments (culture, rural tourism, typical products, wine and food tourism, valuable environmental sites, etc) as a systemic and integrated touristic offer generating sinergies and added value.

Organize special events that can attract tourists and, at the same time, bring out a new image of the Cilento Region in connection with the development of a hospitable system and as an instrument for a strong communication of a qualified social and cultural identity.

Promote actions aimed to extend visitors’ stay in inland areas, acting at first, on the hospitable organization of services (“welcome card”), of products and their quality and on an integrated development of promotion and commercialization actions with the aid of a quality brand created for the welcome system.


tourist market tendencies (search of niche products and quality products, growth of request for culture and well-being), that can represent an opportunity for expansion of the tourist segment;

  • opportunity to have at one’s disposal different “segments“ (culture, rural tourism, typical products, wine and food tourism, valuable environmental sites, etc), of which is possible to take advantage of, to relaunch local tourism;
  • success of coastal tourism sector;
  • environmental quality
  • limited land receptivity;
  • lack of investment policies in tourism promotion;
  • limited tourism business;
  • low integration of different tourism products;
  • lack of collaboration amongst various subjects;
  • depopulation and impoverishment of the “Park areas”, especially in the mountain areas;
  • prevalence of a “hit and run” kind of tourism that can determine negative, more than positive, impacts on the environment.
  • Diversification in tourism and tourists;
  • Collaboration of local communities;
  • Environmental safeguard
  • Creation of tourism activities networks;
  • Mobility and accessibility
  • www.pncvd.it; www.parks.it; www.cilento.net;
  • Opportunities
  • Analogies with Hainan/Wuzhishan
  • Weakness points
  • Analogies with Hainan/Wuzhishan
  • Achieved results
  • Work in progress/Impacts
  • Links


Capability to create a wide offer of tourism facilities

Fast developed in late 50’, Ischia is one of the best known tourism sites in Italy for mass tourism and a beach attractor. But in the last decade it seems to be on the wane. A very short summer season, managed by families’ enterprises, produced less development in terms of facilities quality and social growth. Mass tourism created impacts on coastal ecosystem and social behaviour.

  • Study case
  • Study case features
  • Predominant kind of tourism
  • Adopted methodology
  • Reference target
  • Opportunities
  • Weakness points
  • Analogies with Hainan/Wuzhishan
  • Achieved results
  • Work in progress/Impacts
  • Links

The adopted strategy pointed on local resources to create a wide offer of facilities to extend tourism season during winter and autumn. Special attention is given to natural thermal areas and typical food products. The reference target is a more sophisticated customer that appreciates wellness programs and the cultural offer linked to solid attractors

Volcanogenic area with thermal water and thermal springs. Good transport facilities in the island, easy and fast connections to Napoli by hydrofoil. High standard of facilities and accomodation. High standard of local tour operators.

Lack of tourist planning. Environmental risk connected to tourism development (new hotels built, no respect of natural cycle in renewal of thermal resources, erosion of beaches)

Proximity with coastal area allows to catch tourism flows through a targeted offer. The Chinese experience in natural medicine and therapeutic massage could orient the tourism strategy in this direction.

A longer seasonality is reached combining together beach attractors and thermal resources. Small size enterprises have been created in the field of cosmetics and body care. A good promotion of Ischia thermal properties, allows to create new labels in cosmetics market. Wine and food products are promoted toghrther with thermal attractions.

Targeted network of facilities and products. Common startegies in terms of tourism management. Environmental risk.

www.comuneischia.it; www.terme.ischia.it; www.ischiaonline.it; www.ischiainpillole.com; www.ischiavini.it.