What is the Scientific Method? • The scientific method is an organized way to find a solution to a problem
What are the steps of the Scientific Method? • Identify a problem • Develop a hypothesis • Design an experiment • Collect and analyze data • Draw a conclusion
Example Experiment Please Don’t Try This At Home!
Purpose QuestionDefinition: The question that gets answered by the hypothesis and tested during an experiment. • What affect do energy drinks have on the tortoise?
HypothesisDefinition: Prediction about what will happen during an experiment. • If the tortoises are given energy drinks, then the tortoise to be able to fun faster for a longer period of time, because it will affect the tortoise’s heart rate and central nervous system.
MaterialsDefinition: List of the items you need to complete the experiment (including Measurement equipment). • 20 Tortoises • 5 4-meter long tracks • Stopwatch • 3 different energy drinks • 250mL Monster • 250mL Red Bull • 250mL 5 Hour Energy • 30 50mL Syringes • 10 kg Tortoise food • 10 L tap water
Variables • Independent Variable: Definition: Factor in an experiment that causes the change. • Type of energy drink • Dependent Variable: Definition: Factor in an experiment that changes because the independent variable changed. • Speed during the 4m race
ConstantsDefinition: Any factors that are the same between your experimental groups and control group. • Tortoises (same sex, age, size, number) • Environment (same cage, food, water, room) • Exercise (same amount, intensity, type) • Racing and Timing Technique (same stopwatch, method, at same time)
Groups • Control Group Definition: Group in the experiment that does not get tested on. • Tortoises with NO energy drink • 5 tortoises • Experimental Group Definition: Group in the experiment that does get tested on. • Tortoises with energy drink (15 total) • 5 use Red Bull • 5 use Monster • 5 use 5-hour-energy
ProcedureDefinition: Step-by-step directions about how to do the experiment. • Place each group of 5 tortoises, none of which have had an energy drink, on track and allow them to finish the course. Record times. • Let the tortoises rest for 2 days. • Place the control group on the track and time their races again. Record times. • Give 50mL of the energy drink to each of the 3 experimental groups 20 minutes before their race. • Place experimental groups on the tracks one at a time and record race times. • Collect all data in a chart and compare the control group and the three experimental groups.
Data TablesDefinition: Organized grids where information is written down during an experiment.
InferencesDefinition: An explanation for why something happened or what is being observed. • The energy drinks caused the tortoises to race faster because they increased heart rate and influenced the central nervous system • 5 Hour Energy caused the tortoises to run the fastest because it is the most concentrated and has more of the substances that influence heart rate and the central nervous system.
ConclusionDefinition: Summary statement at the end that recaps what happened in the experiment. • The hypothesis was supported because the energy drinks decreased the tortoises’ race times. • Also, it was shown that Monster and Red Bull give about the same energy boost, but 5 Hour Energy gives a significantly larger energy boost.