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Chapter 20 Classifying Plants. Objective: explain difference between vascular and nonvascular plants and plants with and without seeds. And describe parts of the plants . . Questions you should be able to answer by the end of the lesson. . What are 3 main groups of plants?

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chapter 20 classifying plants

Chapter 20Classifying Plants

Objective: explain difference between vascular and nonvascular plants and plants with and without seeds. And describe parts of the plants.

questions you should be able to answer by the end of the lesson
Questions you should be able to answer by the end of the lesson.
  • What are 3 main groups of plants?
  • Who developed the classification system of organisms that is used today?
  • What are the 2 ways that vascular tissue is important?
  • What are other names for flowering plants and nonflowering seed plants?
  • What’s the largest group of seedless vascular plants?
  • Why are the seeds of gymnosperms called “naked seeds?”
  • Why are conifers able to live where other plants cannot?
  • What group of plants do not have seeds?
  • Why are there more seed plants than seedless plants?
  • Where do mosses need to live and why?
how are plants alike and different
How are plants alike and different?
  • Flowers
  • Needles
  • Green leaves
  • Different shapes and sizes
  • Make own food
  • Carry water
  • Produce O2
  • Reproduce
how plants are classified
How Plants are Classified
  • Most plants live in tropical rain forests.
  • Divided into groups to make them easier to study:
    • Body parts (seeds), tubes, roots, stems, and leaves
    • 3 main groups:
      • seed plants
      • ferns
      • mosses
history of classification
History of Classification
  • Started 2000 years ago.
  • Greek Philosopher Aristotle first classified plants and animals.
  • In 1753- Carolus Linnaeus developed a new method that we use today.
  • Organisms have 2 word names (genus and species) called scientific name
    • All maple trees start with Acer
      • Sugar maple- Acer saccharum
      • Red maple- Acer rubrum
vascular
Vascular
  • Seed plants and ferns
  • Have tubelike cells- vessels or tubes called vascular tissue
  • The tissue forms tubes that transports food and water through the plant
  • Have well developed leaves, stems, and roots
vascular1
Vascular
  • Vascular tissue is important:
    • allows food and water to be transported through the plant= the plant grow larger because leaves and stems do not need to be near water.
    • Vascular tissue is thick and provides support for a plant. Also allows plants to grow tall.
nonvascular plants
Nonvascular Plants
  • Mosses
  • No tubelike cells
  • Short and must have contact with moisture
  • No tubes to support them so stay small
  • Grow in damp shady places on the ground and on sides of trees and rocks.
  • Don’t have true leaves, stems, or roots
seed plants
Seed Plants
  • Use seeds to reproduce
  • A seed is a plant part that contains a beginning plant (called an embryo) and stored food.
  • The seed has a seed coat that holds in moisture. When the conditions are right, the embryo grows into a full- sized plant.
seed plants1
Seed Plants
  • Have the most advanced vascular tissue of all plants.
  • Well developed leaves, stems, and roots.
  • Different sizes and shapes (from 1mm- 379 ft)
seed plants flowering
Seed Plants (Flowering)
  • Different sizes and shapes help

them live in different places.

  • Grasses, trees, flowers, bushes, vines, and cacti.
  • Most are angiosperms, or flowering plants.
  • Fruit protects the seed- forms from part of the flower.
  • Flowers come in many shapes and colors.
seed plants nonflowering
Seed Plants (Nonflowering)
  • Gymnosperms (nonflowering)
  • Not surrounded by fruit
  • Seeds produced inside cones
seed plants nonflowering1
Seed Plants (Nonflowering)
  • Over 700 species of gymnosperms
    • Conifers (600 species)
    • Ginkgo Trees
seed plants nonflowering conifer
Seed Plants (Nonflowering-Conifer)
  • Major group is conifers – 600 species (woody shrubs or treed)
  • Make up 30% of forests
    • Pines, spruces, firs, junipers,

and yews

    • Leaves are shaped like

needles and are green all year

(called evergreens)

    • Needles do not lose water easily like big leaves
      • Easier to live in dry places where trees must store water for a long time
seed plant nonflowering ginkgo
Seed Plant (Nonflowering-Ginkgo)
  • Gingko is other most familiar nonflowering tree
  • Used in city streets because they are able to survive pollution better than other trees
seedless plants
Seedless Plants
  • 2 types
    • Largest: ferns and related plants
      • Vascular (like seed plants)
      • No seeds (unlike seed plants)
    • Mosses and related plants
      • nonvascular
seedless plants fern
Seedless Plants (Fern)
  • Over 10,000 species of Ferns
  • Many are tropical
  • From tiny to large treelike size
  • Have well developed leaves, stems, and roots
seedless plants fern1
Seedless Plants (Fern)
  • Leaves (or Fronds) are usually large and flat
  • Divided into small sections, or leaflets that spread out from a center rib
  • If look closely, you can see new fronds that are curled up, as they uncurl they grow.
seedless plants fern2
Seedless Plants (Fern)
  • On the underside of the frond, you can see small dots called sori- are clusters that contain the reproductive cells of ferns- called spores.
  • When the spores are ripe, the sori burst and open and release the spores into the air
seedless plants fern3
Seedless Plants (Fern)
  • The rhizome is a plant part that has shoots aboveground and roots belowground
seedless plants fern4
Seedless Plants (Fern)
  • After they are released, spores must land in a moist place to produce a tiny plant.
  • Must have consistent moisture to grow
  • Seeds usually survive longer than spores when conditions are dry.
  • Where do you think ferns live? Why are there more seed plants than seedless plants?
seedless plants moss
Seedless Plants (Moss)
  • Moss is nonvascular- no vascular tissue to transport water
    • Must live in moist, shady places
  • Where will you find moss growing?
  • Simple leaflike and stemlike parts
  • More than 9,000 species
  • No well developed leaf, stem, and roots
seedless plants moss1
Seedless Plants (Moss)
  • Get water through root like threads called rhizoids
  • Grow in woodlands and sides of streams
  • Look like little trees and often form carpetlike mats on the forest floor.
seedless plants moss2
Seedless Plants (Moss)
  • Like Ferns, mosses reproduce by spores
  • Mosses produce great numbers of sores.
objective recap
Objective Recap:
  • What are 3 main groups of plants?
  • Who developed the classification system of organisms that is used today?
  • What are the 2 ways that vascular tissue is important?
  • What are other names for flowering plants and nonflowering seed plants?
  • What’s the largest group of seedless vascular plants?
  • Why are the seeds of gymnosperms called “naked seeds?”
  • Why are conifers able to live where other plants cannot?
  • What group of plants do not have seeds?
  • Why are there more seed plants than seedless plants?
  • Where do mosses need to live and why?
lesson 2 the vascular system in plants
Lesson 2- The Vascular System in Plants

Objectives:

  • Identify the main parts of the plant.
  • Describe the structure and function of roots, stems, and leaves.
questions you will be able to answer by the end of the lesson
Questions you will be able to answer by the end of the lesson:
  • What are the functions of roots?
  • What is the difference between xylem and phloem tissue?
  • How are annual growth rings made?
  • What are the main parts of a leaf?What do stomata do?
the vascular system in plants
The Vascular System in Plants
  • Tiny tubes that run through roots, leaves, and stems of most plants.
  • Connects to all parts of the plant
  • To make food and survive- roots take water and minerals from the soil
  • Leaves collect energy form the sun and CO2 from the air
what roots do
What Roots Do
  • Hold plant firmly in ground.
  • Absorb water and minerals from the soil
  • Store water and minerals and food made in leaves.
  • Vascular system brings water and minerals to other parts of the plant
the parts of a root
The Parts of a Root
  • The tip of the root is always growingthrough millions of tiny root hairs
  • Root hairs:
    • absorb water and minerals from the soil
    • store the water and minerals until needed. Can also store food from leaves carried by the phloem.
the parts of a root1
The Parts of a Root
  • Xylem- vascular tissue that carries water and minerals from roots to leaves
    • Leaves use water and minerals to make food.
  • Phloem- vascular tissue carry food from leaves to stems and roots
what stems do
What Stems Do
  • Stems connect leaves with roots
  • Most are above ground
  • Have 3 functions:
    • Support the leaves. Hold leaves us to receive sunlight.
    • Transport food, water, and minerals through the plant.
    • Store food.
the parts of a stem
The Parts of a Stem
  • Contain xylem and phloem
  • Contain special layer of growth tissue
    • produces new layers of xylem and phloem cells.
    • Layers build up in some plants so stems become thicker as they get taller.
    • In trees, these layers become wood.
    • In a tree trunk, one layer forms a new ring each year, called annual growth rings- tell tree’s age.
what leaves do
What Leaves Do
  • Trap sunlight
  • Have 4 functions:
    • Make food.
    • Store food.
    • Transport food to stem
    • Allow gases to enter and leave the plant
      • What gases enter and leave plants?
the parts of a leaf
The Parts of a Leaf
  • Have 3 main parts:
    • Petiole- or stalk- attaches the leaf to a branch or stem
    • Blade – main part of the leaf- collects light from sun to make food
    • Veins- part of vascular system- think tubes arranged in a pattern- run through the blade, petiole, and stem- transport food and water between the stem and leaf.
the parts of a leaf1
The Parts of a Leaf
  • Underside has many small openings called stomata.
  • Each opening is called stoma.
  • Stomata allow gases to enter and leave the leaf.
  • Water vapor also leaves through stomata.
objective recap1
Objective Recap:
  • What are the functions of roots?
  • What is the difference between xylem and phloem tissue?
  • How are annual growth rings made?
  • What are the main parts of a leaf?
  • What do stomata do?
lesson 3 how plants make food
Lesson 3- How Plants Make Food

Objectives:

  • Explain how and where plants make food.
  • Compute the chemical equation for photosynthesis.
  • Identify the importance of O2 in living things.
questions you should be able to answer at the end of the lesson
Questions you should be able to answer at the end of the lesson.
  • What is photosynthesis and where does it occur?
  • What is the source of the chemical energy stored in plants?
  • Why do living things need oxygen?
  • How is respiration the opposite of photosynthesis?
  • What do guard cells do?
do now
Do Now
  • How do all plants make food?
  • Why are plants so important to humans?
the process of photosynthesis
The Process of Photosynthesis
  • During Photosynthesis, plants use the energy from the sunlight to turn CO2 and water into simple sugars (food) and O2
  • How do plants get the CO2, H2O, and energy for photosynthesis?
the process of photosynthesis1
The Process of Photosynthesis
  • Chloroplast-
    • organelles in plant cells where photosynthesis takes place.
    • Contain green pigment called chlorophyll- a pigment is a chemical that absorbs certain types of light. The cells of the green parts of the plants, such as leaves, contain many chloroplasts.
  • When sunlight hits the chloroplasts in the leaves, the chlorophyll absorbs light.
  • The sunlight then supplies the energy for photosynthesis
the process of photosynthesis2
The Process of Photosynthesis
  • Plants use the sun energy to split H2O
  • The Oxygen leaves through the stomata and goes into the air.
  • The Hydrogen combines with the CO2 to make sugar
  • Plants store the energy of sunlight and the sugar as chemical energy.
chemical energy
Chemical Energy
  • Chemical energy –stored in the bonds of molecules
  • When chemicals break apart, energy is released
  • Glucose is the simple sugar that plants make during photosynthesis.
    • Contains stored chemical energy
    • Animals that eat plants use the stored energy
the chemical equation for photosynthesis
The Chemical Equation for Photosynthesis
  • 6CO2 + 6H2O + light energy C6H12O6 + 6O2

http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=49549

http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=62625&title=Photosynthesis

the importance of oxygen
The Importance of Oxygen
  • Oxygen is used to break down food to release the energy- called cellular respiration
  • Photosynthesis is only in plants
  • Cellular respiration happens in plants and animals
  • You get your energy when you break down the glucose from the food you eat.
  • During cellular respiration- O2 combines with Hydrogen to make water and CO2 is released as a waste product (opposite of photosynthesis)
slide48
What does each formula represent? Which way does the arrow for cellular respiration and photosynthesis go?

6CO2+ 6H2O C6H12O+ 6O2

producing oxygen
Producing Oxygen
  • O2 is made from the H2O in plants
  • Plants use H2O to also make sugars (+ CO2)
  • O2 forms into O2 gas and some is released and some is used for cellular respiration
releasing oxygen
Releasing Oxygen
  • O2 leaves through the stomata.
  • Each stoma has 2 special cells –guard cells
    • The size and shape of the guard cells change as they take up and release water.
    • When the guard cells take up water they open
  • When they are open, O2, CO2, and H2O can go in and out
releasing oxygen1
Releasing Oxygen
  • When they lose water, the cells close
  • The amount of light affects the opening and closing of stomata.
    • The stomata of most plants close at night and open during the day when photosynthesis takes place.
  • The amount of water also affects opening and closing of stomata.
    • When the air and soil are dry, the stomata close, even during the day so it doesn’t lose water during dry periods.
objective recap2
Objective Recap: .
  • What is photosynthesis and where does it occur?
  • What is the source of the chemical energy stored in plants?
  • Why do living things need oxygen?
  • How is respiration the opposite of photosynthesis?
  • What do guard cells do?
lesson 4 how plants reproduce
Lesson 4- How Plants Reproduce
  • Objectives:
    • Identify the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction.
    • Describe how mosses and ferns reproduce.
    • discuss sexual reproduction in angiosperms and gymnosperms
questions you should be able to answer by the end of the lesson1
Questions You Should Be Able To Answer By The End Of The Lesson
  • What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?
  • Which type of plant uses spores to reproduce?
  • Describe the process of fertilization in angiosperms.
  • What happens when a seed germinates?
  • Describe the process of reproduction in a conifer.
how plants reproduce
How Plants Reproduce
  • Reproduce - Sexually or Asexually
  • Sexual
    • Need 2 parents
    • Female= egg
    • Male= sperm
  • Asexual
    • Only 1 parent and no egg or sperm
  • Many plants can do both
reproduction in seedless plants
Reproduction in Seedless Plants
  • Mosses and Ferns- seedless- reproduce sexually and asexually
  • Mosses- asexual- when a small piece of the parent breaks off and forms a new plant
  • Ferns -asexual- new plant grows from an underground stem
  • Seedless- sexually- spores- plants develop into male, female, or both male and female
    • The sperm swims to the egg through the moisture around the plant
reproduction in seed plants
Reproduction in Seed Plants
  • Asexually- new plant from a cutting (piece of the original parent)
  • Sexually- more often
sexual reproduction in angiosperms
Sexual Reproduction in Angiosperms
  • Angiosperm- the flower contains the eggs and sperm
    • Stamen- male organs of reproduction (contains the anther and filament)
      • Produce pollen- sperm
    • Pistil- female organ of reproduction
      • Upper part is the stigma (on the tip of the style)
      • Lower part is the ovary (contains the egg)
fertilization
Fertilization
  • After pollination, the pollen grows a tube.
  • The tube reaches down through the pistil to the egg in the ovary= fertilization.
  • The ovary grows and becomes a fruit with seeds inside (fruit protects the seeds)
seeds
Seeds
  • Seeds contain the embryo, or beginning stages of a new plant.
  • If temp and amount of water are right, the seed germinates (starts to grow into a new plant).
  • Seeds also contain stored food which the young plant uses when it is underground until it can make its own.
  • If the new plant if fertilized, a new set of seeds develops in the ovary.
sexual reproduction in gymnosperms
Sexual Reproduction in Gymnosperms
  • The reproductive organ of gymnosperms are in cones, not flowers.
  • Some cones are male and some are female- male are usually smaller than female.
  • During reproduction, male cones release millions of pollen grains into the air- some reach female cones and fertilization takes place
objective recap3
Objective Recap:
  • What is the difference between sexual and asexual reproduction?
  • Which type of plant uses spores to reproduce?
  • Describe the process of fertilization in angiosperms.
  • What happens when a seed germinates?
  • Describe the process of reproduction in a conifer.