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Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM): What It Is and Key Issues*. Definition : The use of computer control and information technology to integrate and automate basic product development and production activities in a manufacturing enterprise. Key Issues :

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Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM): What It Is and Key Issues*

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    1. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing (CIM):What It Is and Key Issues* Definition: The use of computer control and information technology tointegrateand automate basic product development and production activities in a manufacturing enterprise. Key Issues: • Automation of product development activities • Planning and control (low-level) of manufacturing process • Planning, scheduling and control (high-level) of factory resources (materials, labor and machines) • Communications and data management capabilities * Read: (CAD/CAM Module by M. Zarrugh, pp. 1-14)

    2. Design Automation (CAD/CAE/ Tech. Pubs.) MFG Process Automation (CAM/CAPP/CAT/ Robotics) Computer system (Communications Data Management Control) MFG Resource Planning (MRP/MRPII) Computers in Manufacturing: Key Systems Engineering Manufacturing CAD Computer Aided Design CAE Computer Aided Engineering CAM Computer Aided Manufacturing CAPP Computer Aided Process Planning CAT Computer Aided Testing MRP Manufacturing Resource Planning Management

    3. CAM (process automation) Process planning NC/CNC Industrial robots FMS CAD (design automation) Geometric modeling Product structure Automated drafting Group technology Computer Control & Communications MRP or MRPII (manage MFG resources) PDM (manage product data and configurations) CAE (simulation) Structural Thermal Kinematic/Dynamic Logic/Timing CAT (automated test) Prototype testing In-process testing Inspection CMM Common Database, Management, Control System MRP (factory MGMNT) Production control Purchasing Receiving/warehouse Materials tracking Tech. Publishing (writing, multi-media) Word-processing Manuals Documentation CIM System: Basic Processes Manufacturing Engineering ISAT 211 CIM-3 Ó 1997-2000 M. Zarrugh

    4. Design Automation: CAD What is it? CAD is an automated technology for electroniccapture of geometry (form and fit) of parts and how the parts are arranged to form subassemblies and assemblies. Its Benefits: • Electronic form permits easy modification, distribution and reuse of the data • Removes drudgery from drawing process • No need to re-enter data in downstream applications • Electronic documents easier to track than paper • Can be done by engineers so development is faster

    5. CAD: Geometric Modeling • Wireframes: • 2D • 3D • 3D + surfaces • Solids: • B-rep (define boundary and fill it) • CSG (Boolean operations on conic primitives) • NURBS (analytical definition of surfaces and intersections) • Automated Drafting: • Generation of format detail and assembly drawings through 2D projections and x-sections of 3D geometric models

    6. Design Automation: Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE ) • CAE is the application of scientific laws to physical systems to predict their behavior under a variety of conditions without ever building actual hardware. • The geometry, captured in CAD as a solids model, can be used in many downstream simulations. • Structuralanalysis uses finite elements (FE) to predict small deformations and stresses for known geometry, boundary conditions, loads and elastic properties.

    7. CAE: More Types of Engineering Simulations • FE and finite difference models, used in thermalsimulations, determine temperature changes and distributions resulting from known heat loads and thermal properties. • Kinematic and dynamic simulations consider large displacements of interconnected rigid bodies (linkages or mechanisms) in response to specific motions and forces. • Electronic circuit designers use CAE tools to verify the logic and timing of ICs, VLSI devices and circuit boards. Show Ideas video clip

    8. Design Automation:Technical Publishing • Product definition requires many documents created on desktop publishing systems. • The documents may specify applicable standards, describe: • special materials or processing conditions • summarize test results and test and inspection methods • use and repair methods. • Standards needed to simplify the storage and archival of the documents. • Format translators and plug-ins required from transferring documents across systems.

    9. Manufacturing Automation:Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) What is it? Originally CAM referred to numerical control of machine tools. Now CAM includes all automated processes in MFG. Its benefits: • Automation technology facilitates meeting customer's and regulatory requirements. • CAM increases productivity which reduces process development and production cost. • Automation reduces errors, rework and promotes use of existing solutions which shortens time-to-market.

    10. CAM Processes:Computer-Based Automation in Manufacturing • Numerical Control (NC) and Computer Numerical Control (CNC) of machine tools • Automated (or Computer-Aided) Process Planning (CAPP) and tooling and fixturing design • Machine loading, machining, assembly and inspection using industrial robots • Automated materials handling, storage and retrieval • Automated test and inspection • Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS)

    11. Computer Automation in Manufacturing:NC/CNC • Numerical Control (NC) is the control of machine tools by a series of numerical instructions encoded in an NC part program. • Computer Numerical Control (CNC) is direct control of machine tools using a dedicated computer on board. Part programs can be generated and edited at the machine tool. • CNC machine tools are often equipped with automatic tool changers and part loader to minimize waiting and setup times,

    12. Part Geometry CAD STATION CAM STATION NC Programs Speeds/Feeds Material & Size Tooling Ideas Old Designs Creativity Standards NC Programming NC or CNC Machine Tool Parts Computer Automation in Manufacturing: CNC Essential Features Show video clip

    13. Computer Automation in Manufacturing:Automated Process Planning (CAPP) • Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)is a computer assisted process of preparing instructions on how to fabricate a part or build an assembly. • CAPP begins with interpreting design data (geometry and materials) into manufacturing processes. • The output of CAPP is a part routing or a "process plan" detailing specific processing sequence, machines, tools, fixtures and cutting conditions (speeds and feeds). • The generation of process plans is not fully automated yet since it requires human input to provide detailed knowledge of current practices and capabilities.

    14. Computer Automation in Manufacturing: Industrial Robots • Industrial robots are articulated machines that can move and process materials under computer control in the factory. • Robots give consistent performance in repetitive tasks: machine loading, inspection, monitoring, assembly, etc. • Robots can work in hazardous or unpleasant environments: spray painting, arc welding, grinding, sanding, cleaning, handling hazardous material

    15. Computer Automation in Manufacturing: Industrial Robots • Robots can reduce cost since they work at about the same rate as people, but cost about 1/2 as much as labor to operate per hour. • Robots can increase productivity since they can work 24 hrs/day, do not need break or call in sick. • Robots can improve flexibility and since tasks can be changed by a mere change of program, but people need to be trained or retrained

    16. Computers Automation in Manufacturing: Automated Testing and Inspection • Testing and inspection close the loop around processes to insure that they are producing the desired results. • Prototype testing reduces the number of design iterations and quickly checks conformance to design specifications. • Automated test equipment is used in electronic manufacturing to insure that devices and circuit boards are manufactured and assembled correctly. • Vision, Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMM) and robotic inspection systems are used in discrete and process manufacturing to inspect parts and products.

    17. Computers Automation in Manufacturing: Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS) • An FMS is a computer-based system in which machine tools and workstations are arranged in groups or cells. • Cells produce a limited variety of part types obtained from applying group technology (GT). The cell layout minimizes waiting, part transfer and setup times. • An FMS can "randomly" produce a pre-determined variety of parts having similar processing requirements. • Computers control schedules and track materials. • The major benefit of an FMS is flexibility: • Producing a mix of different parts on-demand • Dynamic routing of parts to maintain work load balance • Accommodating changing production volumes

    18. Computers in Manufacturing:Conclusions • Because of intensifying competition and accelerating rate of change, CIM emerges as a strategic weapon with which business can adapt and survive in an ever changing and increasingly competitive business climate. • CIM brings automation and integration which results in: • shorter product development cycle • lower product development cost • lower production costs • responsiveness to changing markets and technologies • increased process and product quality