Project Management Richard Fisher The University of Texas at Dallas
Project Management A PROJECT is a set of tasks (activities) with a definite beginning and ending point. • Phases • Project Planning • Project Scheduling • Project Tracking
Tasks • Task (Activity) --A work component needed to be accomplished; a task within the overall project that has a definite beginning and ending point. The activity consumes time.
Work Breakdown Structure(pp 88-89) • Developed before the dependencies are identified and activity durations are estimated. • List of tasks and duration (work) required for project • WBS is foundation for project schedule
Decomposition • Breaking a Task into smaller Tasks or Sub-Tasks • The lowest level tasks are independent, manageable units and can be performed in a reasonable (measurable) amount of time • The project manager is typically responsible for defining all top level tasks
Decomposition Example • Using Microsoft Word as a decomposition tool • WBS Example • Student setting up their first web page on the UTD server assignment • Fence Assignment (Individual Assignment 1) • MS Project Assignment (Individual Assignment 2)
Steps in Project ManagementNetwork Analysis • Task Definition and Decomposition • Define Relationships • Estimate Task Times • Construct Diagram • Network Evaluation • Project Tracking and Revision
PM Networks ACTIVITY (TASK) --A work component needed to be accomplished; a task within the overall project that has a definite beginning and ending point. The activity consumes time. EVENTS -- Designates the beginning and / or ending of activities. A point in time. Also shows the precedence relationships of the activities. NETWORK -- A combination of Activities and Events that describe the logic of the project. There is one definite starting and ending point.
Relationships • Relationships determine task sequencing • Finish-to-Start • Task B cannot start until Task A is finished • Most common type • Start-to-Start • Task B cannot start until Task A is started • A delay is often used in this relationship A B A B
A B A B Relationships • Finish-to-Finish • Task B cannot finish until Task A is finished • Start-to-Finish • Task B cannot finish until Task A is started
Precedence Relationships A Task C may not begin until both A and B have been completed. A and B may occur concurrently and are parallel tasks. C D B B D Task D may begin after B is completed. Task E may begin after C is completed. A-B-D-F and A-C-E-F are parallel paths. A F C E
CPM- Critical Path Method CRITICAL PATH -- The path through the network consisting of several activities whose total activity times are the longest of any path through the network. The most pressing, dangerous, risky path through the network. Usually denoted by heavy lines through the activities on the Critical Path. CRITICAL PATH TIME -- Total time of all activities on the critical path.
CPM Terminology T ES EXPECTED TIME of a task (activity) EARLIEST START -- Earliest time expected to complete all previous tasks. EARLIEST FINISH = ES + T for a task. LATEST FINISH -- Latest time a task can finish and still allow the project to finish on time. LATEST START = LF - T for a task. SLACK TIME = LS - ES or LF - EF(there is NO slack on the CP) EF LF LS S
Network Evaluation Steps • Construct network diagram showing tasks, relationships and task times using standard format • Define the various paths through the network • Moving from left-to-right calculate the ES (Earliest Start) and EF (Earliest Finish) time for each task • Define Critical Path • Moving from right-to-left calculate the LF(Latest Finish) and LS (Latest Start) for each task • Note Slack Times
T 1. Description of Task goes here (Expected Task time) ES EF LS LF Task (Activity) Diagramming On the critical path: ES = LS & EF = LF
Sample Laboratory CMP 3.Inspect lab 2. Build lab 8. End project 7. Pilot eval 1. Beginproject 4.Install equip 5.Recruit staff 6. Train Staff
Gantt Charts • Use Horizontal Bars to represent Tasks on a Horizontal Time Line
PERT/CPM Charts • The Program Evaluation Review Technique (PERT) • Critical Path Method (CPM) • The distinctions between the two methods have disappeared over time, and today the technique is called either PERT, CPM, or PERT/CPM
PERT/CPM Charts • Overview of PERT/CPM • PERT/CPM is called a bottom-up technique • Project tasks • Once you know the tasks, their duration, and the order in which they must be performed, you can calculate the time that it will take to complete the project
PERT/CPM Charts • PERT/CPM Tasks • Task box • Task ID • Task name • Task Duration • Start Day/Date • Finish Day/Date
PERT/CPM Charts • A PERT/CPM Example with Five Tasks
Project Tracking Tips • Update Project as needed • Make sure tasks are broken down enough to see progress (or lack of progress) • Poor “task status” communication often means poor progress • Watch for changes in Critical Path • Make sure that there are no “resource conflicts”