The aim of this lesson: • To examine the progress made in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in poverty reduction, education and health.
What are the MDGs? • MDGswere set by all Government leaders at the UN MillenniumSummit, September2000 • All UN organisations decided to beguided by MDGs in their future action: unity of purpose, coherent action, and strategicapproaches by the UN system as a whole (guided by CEB) • Leaders pledged to strive, individually and collectively, towardsthese goals through international, regional and national action.
Goal 1: Eradicate Extreme poverty and hunger. • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people whose income is less than $1 a day • Achieve full and productive employment and decent work for all, including women and young people • Halve, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people who suffer from hunger
Positive progress • The poverty reduction target was met. Preliminary estimates indicate that the global poverty rate at $1.25 a day fell in 2010 to less than half the 1990 rate. If these results are confirmed, the first target of the MDGs— cutting the extreme poverty rate to half its 1990 level—will have been achieved at the global level well ahead of 2015. • A remarkable rate of progress was sustained in China. After the extreme poverty rate had dropped from 60 per cent in 1990 to 16 per cent in 2005, the incidence fell further by 2008 to 13 per cent. • In India and in the Southern Asian region excluding India, poverty rates fell from 51 to 37 per cent and from 52 to 26 per cent, respectively, between 1990 and 2008.
Areas of slow growth • poverty remains widespread in sub-Saharan Africa and in Southern Asia, despite significant progress. The sub-Saharan African poverty rate fell by almost 5 percentage points, to less than 48 per cent, between 2005 and 2008. What's happened? • Deterioration of the labour market, triggered by the economic crisis, has resulted in a decline in employment. As jobs were lost, more workers have been forced into vulnerable employment • Since the economic crisis, more workers find themselves and their families living in extreme poverty • Despite some progress, one in four children in the developing world are still underweight. Children in rural areas are nearly twice as likely to be underweight as those in urban areas • Over 42 million people have been uprooted by conflict or persecution
Goal 2: Achieve universal primary education. • Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling
Positive progress • In the developing regions, the net enrolment rate for children of primary school age rose from 82 to 90 per cent between 1999 and 2010. • Enrolment rates of children of primary school age increased remarkably in sub-Saharan Africa, from 58 to 76 per cent between 1999 and 2010. • In four developing areas, Northern Africa, Eastern Asia, Latin America, Caribbean and South-East Asia, at least 95% of primary aged children were in school.
Areas of slow growth • A closer look at the data reveals that nearly all of this growth occurred between 1999 and 2004, and that progress in reducing the number of out-of-school children slowed considerably after 2004. • More than half of all out of school children are in the sub-Saharan. • Moreover, providing enough teachers and classrooms is vital in order to meet demand, most notably in sub-Saharan Africa. It is estimated that double the current number of teachers would be needed in sub-Saharan Africa in order to meet the primary education target by 2015.
Goal Four: Reduce Child Mortality • Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the mortality rate of children under five
Positive progress • The number of children in developing countries who died before they reached the age of five dropped from 97 to 63 deaths per 1,000 live births between 1990 and 2010. • Worldwide CMR fell from more than 12 million in 1990 to 7.6 million in 2010 • Northern Africa has already reached this goal by bringing down the child mortality rate by 67%. • Eastern Asia is close, with a 63 percent decline.
Areas of slow growth • Sub-Sahara Africa, Oceania and southern Asia have achieved reductions but in 10 years only declined by less than half of what is required to meet the target. • Child mortality has fallen by one-third but progress is still too slow to reach the target. • The highest rates of child mortality continue to be found in sub-Saharan Africa, where, in 2008, one in seven children died before their fifth birthday. • Of the 67 countries defined as having high child mortality rates, only 10 are currently on track to meet the MDG target.
Goal 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases. • Halt and begin to reverse, by 2015, the spread of HIV/AIDS • Achieve, by 2010, universal access to treatment for HIV/AIDS for all those who need it • Halt and begin to reverse, by 2015, the incidence of malaria and other major diseases
Positive progress • The global response to AIDS has demonstrated tangible progress toward the achievement of MDG 6. • The number of new HIV infections fell steadily from a peak of 3.5 million in 1996 to 2.7 million in 2008. • Deaths from AIDS-related illnesses also dropped from 2.2 million in 2004 to two million in 2008. • 33 countries have had a decrease in infections, 22 are in sub-Sahara Africa. • Sub-Sahara accounted for 70% of new HIV infections in 2010, New infections were 22%lower in 2010 in comparison to 1997 peak. • An estimated 11 million people suffered from tuberculosis in 2008. But the number of new cases fell from 143 to 139 per 100,000 people between 2004 and 2008. Rates have been falling in all regions except Asia, which accounts for 55 per cent of all new cases.
Cont. • In 15 of the most severely affected countries, including Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe, HIV prevalence among young people has fallen by more than 25 per cent, as young people are choosing to have sex later, have fewer partners and use condoms.
Areas of slow growth • Although the epidemic appears to have stabilized in most regions, new HIV infections are on the rise in Eastern Europe and Central Asia. Globally, the number of people living with HIV is continuing to increase because of the combined effect of new HIV infections and the beneficial impact of antiretroviral therapy.
Success Stories: • http://www.endpoverty2015.org/mdg-success-stories/
Case Study: Nigeria GOAL 1 • Eradicate Extreme Poverty and HungerRecent economic growth, particularly in agriculture, has markedly reduced the proportion of underweight children, from 35.7 per cent in 1990 to 23.1 per cent in 2008. However, growth has not generated enough jobs and its effect on poverty is not yet clear (the most recent data is from 2004). The available data and the current policy environment suggest that the target will be difficult to meet. • Growth needs to be more equitable and broad-based. Developing agriculture and creating jobs will require the public sector to create an enabling environment for business, including building critical infrastructure, making regulatory services transparent and providing sustainable access to enterprise finance. Social protection and poverty eradication programmes need to be scaled-up and better coordinated.
GOAL 2 • Achieve Universal Primary EducationIn a major step forward, nearly nine out of ten children, 88.8 per cent, are now enrolled in school. Nevertheless, regional differences are stark. State primary completion rates range from 2 per cent to 99 per cent. In particular, progress needs to be accelerated in the north of the country if the target is to be met. • Low completion rates reflect poor learning environments and point to the urgent need to raise teaching standards. The rapid improvement in youth literacy, from 64.1 per cent to 80 per cent between 2000 and 2008, appears to have reached a plateau. The Universal Basic Education Scheme is a promising initiative that needs to be reformed and strengthened. The Federal Teachers' Scheme and in-service training by the National Teachers' Institute have begun to address the urgent need to improve the quality of teaching. To accelerate progress and reduce regional disparities, these initiatives need to be rapidly expanded and improved
GOAL 4 • Reduce Child MortalityProgress in reducing child mortality has been rapid. With sustained effort and improvement in related and lagging sectors, such as water and sanitation, there is a strong possibility of achieving Goal 4 by 2015. Under-five mortality has fallen by over a fifth in five years, from 201 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2003, to 157 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2008. In the same period, the infant mortality rate fell even faster, from 100 to 75 deaths per 1,000 live births. • Recent interventions – including Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses – that reflect the underlying causes of child deaths, have contributed to these successes. • However, these need to be rapidly expanded and accelerated if Nigeria is to achieve Goal 4. Access to primary health care needs to be improved by more investment in infrastructure, human resources, equipment and consumables, and better management. Implementation arrangements must target local needs, which vary hugely from community to community and state to state. Routine immunisation is unsatisfactory but can be rapidly improved by building on the successes of the near-eradication of polio.
GOAL 6 • Combat HIV-AIDS, Malaria and Other DiseasesNigeria has had striking success in almost eradicating polio, reducing the number of cases by 98 per cent between 2009 and 2010. Another marked success was the fall in the prevalence of HIV among pregnant young women aged 15-24 from 5.8 per cent in 2001 to 4.2 per cent in 2008. Thus, nationally, Nigeria has already achieved this target. However, some states still have high prevalence rates that require urgent policy attention. • Successes have been buoyed by better awareness and use of contraceptives. • There has been a sharp decrease in malaria prevalence rates. Nationwide distribution of 72 million long-lasting insecticide-treated bed nets, although only in its initial stages, protected twice as many children (10.9 per cent) in 2009, compared to 2008 (5.5 per cent). • Similar progress has been made with tuberculosis. With sustained attention, tuberculosis is expected to be a limited public health burden by 2015. • To consolidate and extend progress on Goal 6, challenges that need to be addressed include improving knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS, improving access to antiretroviral therapies, and effective implementation of the national strategic frameworks for HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis control