Objectives • Identify the differences between beef, pork, and lamb cuts; • Diagram and identify the wholesale cuts of beef, pork, and lamb; • List retail meat cuts and identify the wholesale cut that it came from; • Explain the yield and quality grades of meat; • Describe the influence grade has on preparation procedures and retail price; • List signs and causes of meat spoilage; and • Judge a class of meat cuts.
A. Identify the differences between beef, pork, and lamb cuts • Beef: Cherry Red color, white fat, larger size • Pork: Pale pink color and white fat • Lamb: Darker red color, white fat, small size
B. Diagram and identify the wholesale cuts of beef, pork, and lamb BEEF Loin Rib Chuck Round Plate Flank Brisket Shank
Pork Loin Side Ham Shoulder Jowel
Lamb Rib Loin Shoulder Leg Breast
C. List retail meat cuts and identify the wholesale cut that it came from Eye Steak T Bone Steak 7 Bone Steak/Roast Brisket Round Steak/Roast Short Ribs Cross Cuts Flank Steak
Loin Chop Loin BostonBlade Side Ham Ham Shoulder Bacon Jowel Jowel
Rib Chop Loin Chop Arm Chop Rib Loin Shoulder Leg Breast American Style Roast Breast
D. Explain the yield and quality grades of meat • Quality Grade: based on two factors: 1- Maturityof the carcass - determined by observing bone and cartilage. -Young carcass=soft bone with pearl white cartilage -Old carcass= Low amounts of cartilage and hard bones -older carcass= less tender meat 2- Amount of Marbling “Marbling”- intramuscular fat or flecks of fat in the lean muscle that gives it taste
Seven Quality Grades: Prime 1-Prime 4-Standard 2-Choice 5-Commercial 3-Select 6-Utility Commercial Choice Select Utility Standard
E. Describe the influence grade has on preparation procedures and retail price Retail Price: Consumers are willing to pay a higher price for higher quality meat. VS
Cooking Procedures • Meat with more marbling is more tender and can be cooked at a higher temperature • Meat with little marbling is tougher and therefore needs to be cooked at a lower temp over a long period of time.
F. List signs and causes of meat spoilage Meat is considered “spoiled” when it is unfit for human consumption. The major causes of spoiling are: • Microorganisms • Bacteria • Yeast • Mold
Signs of Meat Spoilage • Odor • Slime • Mold Growth • Discoloration