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2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.. Liver. If liver is going to be cooked by any dry method of cooking, great care must be taken to ensure that it is not overcookedIf overcooked, it will harden, toughen, and change flavor considerablyThe thinner the cut, the faster it will need t

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offal specialty meats organ meats
Offal/Specialty Meats/Organ Meats
  • The word offal comes from the Old English “off” and “fall” referring to the pieces that fall from the animal carcass during butchering
  • Other names: offal cuts, specialty meats, organ meats, variety meats, bad meats, and cheap meats

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

liver
Liver
  • If liver is going to be cooked by any dry method of cooking, great care must be taken to ensure that it is not overcooked
  • If overcooked, it will harden, toughen, and change flavor considerably
  • The thinner the cut, the faster it will need to be cooked
  • Inaccuracy in removal of the silver skin can cause curling of the liver during cooking resulting in poor presentation and toughness

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

beef liver
Beef Liver
  • Quality Factors
    • Should have a bright color with a moist but not slimy surface and fresh smell
    • Is darker and has a stronger taste than all other livers
    • Is generally toughest of all livers
    • Can weight 8 to 12 pounds

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

calf s liver
Calf’s Liver
  • Should be deep rose to reddish brown in color
  • Should not have any dark red or purple tinges
  • Should not have any blood spots or bruising
  • Should weight on average 7 pounds

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

lamb liver
Lamb Liver
  • Has sharp and distinctive odor
  • Very light reddish brown in color
  • Color should be lively and have a bright bloom; should not show any sign of dullness
  • Resembles calf’s liver, and is sometimes mistakenly sold as calf’s liver
  • Generally very tender

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

lamb liver7
Lamb Liver
  • Weighs on average about 2 pounds
  • Dries very quickly if overcooked

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

pork liver
Pork Liver
  • Has a strong odor and flavor
  • Color should be lively and have a light reddish brown tinge
  • Weighs on average 3 pounds
  • Is primarily used in the production of pâtes and sausages, although it can be sautéed and fried

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

cleaning liver
Cleaning Liver
  • Wash well and pat dry
  • Remove any tough membranes, tubes, and sinews
  • Take great care not to damage the structure during removal of veins
  • Skin the liver by removing tough silver skin that surrounds it
  • Slice as desired

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

chicken and duck liver
Chicken and Duck Liver
  • Quality Points
    • Should be firm and well shaped
    • Should not have any evidence of the gallbladder remaining—easily recognized by green staining
    • Should be a rich dark reddish brown with a bright bloom
    • Should be intact, not mashed or damaged in any way

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras
Foie Gras
  • Romans (1st century BC) realized that goose liver was greatly improved when the geese were fed fresh figs
  • Ashkenazi Jews of central Europe are credited with disseminating the method of cultivation of foie gras
  • Escoffier created step-by-step instructions on preparing the liver for foie gras as we know it today
  • Literal translation from the French is “fat liver”

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras12
Foie Gras
  • Quality Points
    • Color should be light yellow to amber
    • The lighter the liver, the less fat is contained in the liver
    • Should be firm and resilient to touch
    • Should give slightly under thumb pressure, and the thumb mark should remain visible
    • The higher the grade, the fewer blemishes should be present

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras13
Foie Gras
  • Quality Points
    • Grade A livers must weigh at least 1½ pounds
    • Grade B livers should weigh between ¾ and 1½ pounds
    • Grade C livers were less than 1 pound
    • The size of the liver will determine how much vein is contained within

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras14
Foie Gras
  • Quality Points
    • Finest livers should be relatively free of any bruises or blemishes
    • Surface blood spots, or small red pin dots, indicate a breakdown of capillaries or an excessive number of veins that will affect the flavor and texture of the finished dish

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras15
Foie Gras
  • Quality Points
    • Generally sold in individual vacuum-sealed packages and should remain in packages until ready for use
    • Will keep for 2 weeks in vacuum seal in the refrigerator
    • Best when used within 1 week of purchase
    • When removed from vacuum package, use immediately, or wrap tightly in plastic and use within 48 hours

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras16
Foie Gras
  • Quality Points
    • Freezing and defrosting destroy cell walls within the foie gras, allowing moisture to evaporate
    • Residual blood left in veins can be removed by soaking in milk for 2 hours (may not be necessary because of modern processing)
    • Goose liver is slightly larger than duck liver

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras preparation
Foie Gras Preparation
  • Hot Preparation
    • Using a slightly chilled liver, separate the lobes by gently inserting your hands between the lobes, and with one lobe in each hand, pull them apart
    • Use a sharp knife to cut the connective membranes and nerves between the lobes
    • Trim away any visible membranes, veins, and green bile

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras preparation18
Foie Gras Preparation
  • Hot Preparation
    • Cut lobes into medallions of differing sizes depending on the method of cooking
    • Always use a sharp knife dipped in hot water and slice the liver on a diagonal

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras preparation19
Foie Gras Preparation
  • Cold Preparation
    • Remove the Vein:
      • Bring the liver to room temperature by removing the foie gras from the vacuumed package, rinsing well, and immersing it in a water bath of 95ºF (35ºC).
      • After soaking for one hour, the liver will be pliable enough to clean
      • Separate the two lobes and, with the larger lobe lying upside down, find the area where the connecting membranes and veins have been cut

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras preparation20
Foie Gras Preparation
  • Cold Preparation
    • Remove the Vein:
      • Gently tug the membrane to reveal the location of the central vein of the lobe; as you pull, use your other hand to gently peel back the flesh of the liver, tracing the location of the vein
      • Clean the foie gras without breaking it into pieces; the central vein reaches roughly two thirds down the middle of the large lobe before it forks into two separate directions, forming an upside-down “Y”
      • Remove it gently, following it at all times; remove all membranes at the same time as the veins

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

foie gras preparation21
Foie Gras Preparation
  • Cold Preparation
    • Remove the Vein:
      • You should have a somewhat flattened but intact lobe
      • Do the same for the other lobe
      • Discard the membranes and veins; using the cleaned lobes, continue with the recipe

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

sweetbreads
Sweetbreads
  • Most delicately flavored of the offal meats
  • Most sought after for their subtle flavor and wonderful texture
  • They are the small thymus glands from the neck and heart of young steers, calves, and lamb
  • The round lobe is found near the heart
  • The longer elongated lobe is from the throat in the neck of the animal

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

sweetbreads23
Sweetbreads
  • Quality Factors
    • Should be light, bright, and rosy in color
    • The larger size is more desirable
    • Should not have any blood spots or bruising visible
    • Outer membrane is removed either before or after cooking

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

cooking sweetbreads
Cooking Sweetbreads
  • Soak in cold water for about 6 to 8 hours, changing the water often
  • Blanch in simmering water with a little lemon juice or vinegar added for about 2 minutes to help firm their texture and prepare them for trimming
  • Chill immediately and pat dry

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

cooking sweetbreads25
Cooking Sweetbreads
  • Carefully trim off all tubes, sinews, and any fat, pressing very lightly between 2 boards to even their size
  • The sweetbreads can now be larded or studded as desired
  • They are braised brown or white, sautéed, or fried

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

tongue
Tongue
  • Quality Points
    • There should be no throat bones or cartilage attached
    • Wash well in cold water to remove any blood
  • Cooking
    • Tongues should be soaked in acidulated water for an hour or in plain water overnight if the tongues are to be salted
    • Tongue has a thick outer layer of skin and requires a long, slow, moist cooking method to make it tender enough to eat

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

tongue27
Tongue
  • Cooking
    • Cook by poaching, and when it is fully cooked, quickly plunge into cold water; the skin is then split and peeled off like a glove
    • Before serving, cut away any roots, small bones, or gristle that might still be present at the neck end
    • Tongues can be pickled and pressed into shapes before cutting, but this must be done after skinning and before they are completely cooled

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

heart
Heart
  • Quality Points
    • Hearts should have a fresh smell and red color not brown or gray
    • Store loosely wrapped in the refrigerator for no more than 3 days
  • Cooking
    • All hearts should be thoroughly washed before cooking, and the membrane inside that divides the two heart chambers should be removed, particularly if the heart is to be stuffed

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

heart29
Heart
  • Cooking
    • Open the heart without separating halves
    • Trim off excess fat and tubes
    • Remove clots of blood and sprinkle with olive oil and lemon juice
    • Marinate for 1 to 2 hours and season with salt and pepper
    • Stuff with pork forcemeat or savory stuffing

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

heart30
Heart
  • Cooking
    • Wrap in larding bacon (cut paper-thin) or in pig’s caul
    • Tie well with string and cook gently by roasting or braising
    • Alternately, the heart may be sewn closed for cooking

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

kidneys
Kidneys
  • Rules for purchase:
    • Should not appear limp or have a strong smell
    • Are highly perishable and should be prepared promptly after they are purchased
    • Should have a bright appearance and should not appear shriveled in any way
    • Should be firm, pink, or pale red rather than purple, and should not have a uric acid smell

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

lamb kidneys
Lamb Kidneys
  • Preparation for cooking:
    • Slit on bulging side and open without separating the two halves
    • Remove the skin, trim tubes, skewer to keep kidney open
    • They can be divided into 2 halves lengthwise; skin and trim

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

pluck
Pluck
  • Rules for preparation:
    • The lungs should be beaten vigorously to expel air, and the spleen should be skinned
    • They should be soaked in cold water with salt for 24 hours to remove the blood
    • Blanch spleen and lungs in salt water for 10 minutes; Slice it thinly and fry in clarified butter
    • Alternately, they should be lightly poached for 1½ hours until tender and used for stuffing and sausage

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

brains
Brains
  • Quality Points
    • Choose brains that are clean, light pink color, and free of blood clots and stains
    • Brains should be firm, plump, and pinkish white
    • Chill well and use the same day as purchased

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

brains35
Brains
  • Preparation for Cooking
    • Before precooking, soak the brains in cold water and remove the outer membrane
    • Brains should be soaked in cold water until all the blood is leached away; the arteries and fibers should then be removed
    • Precooking is, in fact, a prerequisite to most methods of preparation and enhances the keeping quality of the brains

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

brains36
Brains
  • Preparation for Cooking
    • Simmer them for about 20 minutes in salted water, adding 1 or 2 tablespoons of lemon juice or vinegar, and other seasonings if you desire
    • Another method is to simmer them in milk; this step will firm their mushy consistency for use in other recipes
    • The brains are rested and cooled before the next method of cooking takes place
    • They may be sautéed or cut in small pieces and deep fried in batter or other coatings, fried, creamed, or scrambled with eggs

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

blood
Blood
  • Considerations for Cooking
    • Fresh blood straight from the animal is at great risk for spoiling unless dealt with immediately
    • A little lemon juice or vinegar should be added to stop the blood from clotting during refrigeration; 1 tablespoon (15 mL) of lemon juice per 2 quarts (1.9 L) of blood is the recommended ratio
    • Store the fresh blood for no more than 2 days

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

slide38
Head
  • Quality Points
    • Check the neck for obvious signs of bruising and damaged flesh
    • Ensure that the windpipes have been removed
    • Clean the ears, nose, and mouth areas of anything that looks unclean
    • Wash the whole head thoroughly

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

slide39
Head
  • Preparation for Cooking
    • Make an incision down the center of the head from the top of the forehead to the nose of the animal
    • Run your knife along the meat, keeping the flesh attached to the skin but following the contour of the skull until you have completely boned the head
    • Take the greatest care to keep your knife facing the bone at all times in order to remove as much flesh as possible
    • Follow the head from top to bottom around the forehead, then around the eyes along the snout and then along the jaw

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

slide40
Head
  • Preparation for Cooking
    • Lay the skin out flesh side up; clean around the ears, nose, and tongue end, removing any cartilage and sinews; remove all large fat pockets that are visible, cleaning down to the flesh
    • Remove the tongue and cut into strips about 3 inches by ½ inch (7.5 cm by 1.25 cm) and reserve
    • Now remove the skin by using a long firm ham knife and cutting under the flesh against the skin as if skinning a large salmon fillet

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

slide41
Head
  • Preparation for Cooking
    • Lay the flesh into the best rectangle you can make from it in between 2 sheets of strong plastic wrap and lightly beat the head into a somewhat even-looking sheet
    • Roll this up with the tongue inside, seasoning well as you go
    • Tie in muslin into a galantine shape and secure with butcher’s twine
    • Poach for 3 hours, very gently, until fully cooked
    • Cool until you can handle it, and then rewrap and tie tightly to create its final shape in fresh muslin, allowing it to chill in the cooking liquid

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

tripe
Tripe
  • Cooking
    • Soak in acidulated water overnight and wash well the next day in plenty of running cold water
    • Cut into strips about 4 inches (10 cm) long and 1 inch (2.5 cm) wide
    • Braise or poach in rich court bouillon or good beef broth until tender
    • Add to an appropriate sauce and serve

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

tails
Tails
  • Quality Points
    • Look for tails with an even distribution of meat and fat
    • They should have an even coating of very white fat
    • They should be skinned and trimmed of excess fat
  • They can be bought cut into chunks through cartilage between segments of bone
  • They can also be boned without damaging skin; season with salt and pepper and stuff; Roll and tie with cloth and string, like a galantine, for cooking

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

caul fat
Caul Fat
  • Pig’s caul fat is the lining of a pig’s stomach
  • The excess fat is removed and can be used as lard
  • The remaining membrane is used as a protective wrapping for any meat item that needs to have a “natural plastic wrap” to hold it together during cooking
  • Soak it in salt water and then drain well before using

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

caul fat45
Caul Fat
  • It can be very delicate, so handle with care
  • It will mostly disappear when cooked, except when it has been wrapped repeatedly around a food item

© 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning. All Rights Reserved.

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