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A Case for Rethinking the Internet Architecture: Some Promising Approaches

A Case for Rethinking the Internet Architecture: Some Promising Approaches

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A Case for Rethinking the Internet Architecture: Some Promising Approaches

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  1. A Case for Rethinking the Internet Architecture:Some Promising Approaches Guru Parulkar http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  2. Executive Summary • Internet has been a great success • Has emerged to be a great platform for innovations • It is time to reinvent Internet infrastructure • Being subject to uses and abuses it is not designed for • Can be a even bigger platform for innovations • Many promising approaches being put forward • Infrastructure virtualization and programmability key • CIO organizations have a big role to play • Active collaboration with “infrastructure” researchers important The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  3. Internet Has Been A Transformative Infrastructure Top 20 Engineering Innovations of 20th Century A Century of Innovations(National Academy of Engineering)

  4. Applications Kazaa VoIP Mail News Video Audio IM YouTube Transport protocols TCP SIP UDP RTP IP on everything ContinuedInnovations Ossification Internet Ossification Everything on WEB HTTP IP Ethernet 802.11 Power lines ATM Optical Satellite Bluetooth The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  5. State of Internet “… in the thirty-odd years since its invention, new uses and abuses, …, are pushing the Internet into realms that its original design neither anticipated nor easily accommodates.” “Freezing forevermore the current architecture would be bad enough, but in fact the situation is deteriorating.” Overcoming Barriers to Disruptive Innovation in Networking, NSF Workshp Report, 05. The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  6. Internet Architecture Limitations • Security & robustness - to support other critical infrastructures • Control and management • Addressing, naming & (inter-domain) routing • Mobility of hosts and networks • Economic viability of different stakeholders • Scaling of service innovations The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  7. IP IP Narrow Waist Not Designed to Absorb Innovations • IP narrow waist architecture very successful • The IP narrow waist decides Internet architecture and thus its behavior • Trust and security • QoS • Mobility • … • IP narrow waist difficult to change and evolve • Not designed for evolution • Does not “absorb” innovations to the narrow waist The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  8. Scaling successful services requiresmigrating into the infrastructure Internet Architecture Does Not Support Scaling of Services Applications Network Substrate Service innovationstarts at the edges New service providers have to build and deploytheir own infrastructure -- tremendous barrier The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  9. Future Internet Research Agenda • GENI Research Plan • Compelling & comprehensive case for rethinking Internet • 100+ page with two years of work • http://www.geni.net/GDD/GDD-06-28.pdf • Not universally admired • One group -- too broad • Another group -- not broad enough • “Classic science” missing -- maybe it should?? More a reflection of how CS community doesn’t still know how to champion multiple big agendas The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  10. Momentum Building: Funding • NSF: GENI Initiative • FIND and other research programs • GENI as a facility for experimentation • US multi-agency study on advanced networking • Europe • FIRE and other complementary programs • Japan, Korea, … The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  11. Momentum Building: Research • NSF FIND projects: http://www.nets-find.net/ • European FIRE awards • Many ideas from the past few years • Stanford Clean Slate Internet Design Program The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  12. Executive Summary • Internet has been a great success • Has emerged to be a great platform for innovations • It is time to reinvent Internet infrastructure • Being subject to uses and abuses it is not designed for • Can be a even bigger platform for innovations • Many promising approaches being put forward • Infrastructure virtualization and programmability key • CIO organizations have a big role to play • Active collaboration with “infrastructure” researchers important The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  13. The Stanford Clean Slate Program Bring together Stanford’s breadth and depth: Networking, optical communications, wireless, access networks, theory, economics, security, applications, multimedia, operating systems, hardware and VLSI, system architecture, … Research for long term impact on the practice of networkingTwo pronged approach: “innovations in the small” and “innovations in the large” Funding Industry Collaborators & Sponsors: Cisco, DT, DoCoMo, NEC, Xilinx Government Agencies: NSF, DARPA, … Clean slate as a research process, not necessarily as a deployment strategy The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  14. HeterogeneousApplications NetworkArchitectures SecurityRobustness EconomicsPolicies HeterogeneousPHY Technologies Broad Interdisciplinary Focus The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  15. Congestion Control (RCP) Wireless (Spectrum) Backbone (Lightflow) Backbone (VLB) Security (Ethane) Flow Theory Example Projects Architectural Blueprint of Future Internet? E2E Secured Network Open Prog Mobile Internet2020 EASI:Enable & ScaleInnovations The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  16. EASI: Goals Enhancing the Internet to make it an even more powerful engine for innovation. Two Motivating Cases • Architectural innovations • enabling fundamental changes to the Internet architecture • Service-level innovations • lowering barrier-to-entry for scalable service deployment Joint project between Stanford and Princeton University The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  17. Future Infrastructure: Key Concepts Slicing, Virtualization, Programmability The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  18. Future Infrastructure: Key Concepts Slicing, Virtualization, Programmability The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  19. Future Infrastructure: Key Concepts Slicing, Virtualization, Programmability The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  20. EASI Infrastructure Observations • Infrastructure includes • Computing, storage, packet/circuit switching resources • Slicing, virtualization, programmability • Across layers: layer 1 and up • Across resource types: computing, storage, net • End-to-end: end nodes, enterprise, regional, backbone, … • Functionality and performance both important The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  21. Potential for Innovation • Allow network providers to support value-added services • Empower end-user innovation • Allow user-centric innovations to migrate into the network • Allow network architectures to evolve seamlessly • Provide economic viability to different stakeholders Democratization of Innovations Eric von Hippel The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  22. Controller EASI in Enterprise To Internet The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  23. EASI OpenFlow Network: Goals • A way for researchers to run experiments in the networks they use everyday. • Ease the deployment of GENI in college campuses. • A “pragmatic” compromise • Allow researchers to run experimental architectures in their network… • …without requiring vendors to expose internal workings. The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  24. No obvious way • Commercial vendor won’t open software and hardware development environment • Complexity of support • Market protection and barrier to entry • Hard to build my own • Prototypes are flakey • Software only: Too slow • Hardware/software: Fanout too small (need >100 for wiring closet) The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  25. Furthermore, we want… • Isolation: Regular production traffic untouched • Virtualized and programmable: Different flows processed in different ways • Equipment we can trust in our wiring closet • Open development environment for all researchers (e.g. Linux, Verilog, etc). • Flexible definitions of a flow • Individual application traffic • Aggregated flows • Alternatives to IP running side-by-side • … “Flow” is a useful granularity for virtualization The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  26. Network Slicing and Virtualization: OpenFlow Switch Flow Switch Open API Simple Protocol Secure Channel SSL sw Linux PC • Decides which flows to allow • Programs flow-table Flow Table hw Packet processing: If flow in table, forward packet Else, send to controller e.g. 48-ports of 1GE, or wireless access point. The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  27. Secure Channel Normal Software sw Flow Table Normal datapath hw Customized Flow Processing Commercial Switch Open API OpenFlow Protocol SSL Linux PC • Line-rate packet processing • Hardware virtualization • Congestion Control • Measurement • Packet inspection • New protocols • …? Office Laboratory Ivo NetFPGA The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  28. Server room OpenFlow-enabled Commercial Switch Normal Software sw Secure Channel Normal Datapath hw Flow Table OpenFlow-enabled OpenFlow-enabled OpenFlow-enabled OpenFlow-enabled OpenFlow-enabled sw sw sw sw sw SC SC SC SC SC hw hw hw hw hw FT FT FT FT FT controller PC The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  29. Deployment at Stanford Stanford Computer Science Department Gates Building ~1,000 network users Current network • Catalyst 4k in 22 wiring closets • 100M Ethernet to desktops • 2 x 1GE uplinks to basement • 2 x Catalyst 6500 in basement • 2 x 10GE uplinks to campus • Cat 4k coming to end of life Expect to announce building-wide OpenFlow shortly The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  30. The EASI/GENI Big Picture Enterprise GENIClearinghouse Experimenter OpenFlow Network Aggregate Other Enterprise GENI Components Controller: Aggregate Component Manager (ACM) on NOX Desktop, Clusters, Storage, etc. OpenFlow switches, NetFPGA The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  31. Nationwide EASI NetworkOver Internet2 Backbone EASI Enterprise 1GE links The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  32. Virtual World (VW) Environment • VW emerging to be another interesting application class • VW is very demanding and will push Internet to its limits • 3D graphics, multimedia streaming and scalability critical • Scalable to 1M+ concurrent users & 50M registered users spread over world • A single VW environment to support many VW applications • Two big components of the environment • Massive content dissemination and large scale simulation • Neither one supported well on the current Internet The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  33. ContentDissemination Simulation VW Environment: High Level Structure • “Simulation” models the VW for potentially 1M+ users • Increasingly better fidelity and responsiveness are key requirements • Content provided by providers and 50M+ participants • Higher quality multimedia and graphics content is a must • Content dissemination provides content to render relevant VW for 1M+ users The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  34. VW Simulation A simple model: map the world being simulated on a 2D grid and assign each square of the grid to a processor The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  35. VW Simulation on a Slice Data Center A Data Center B Data Center C Data Center D VW Simulation on a PVI that is customized for high end computing with dynamic topologies The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  36. VW CDN on another Slice VW CDN on a slice that is customized for caching at the edges The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  37. Research Scope Virtual worlds, gaming, ubiquitous computing, content dissemination, distributed storage, sensor integration, … Architecture for a Virtualizable & Programmable Network Substrate Resource acquisition and configuration, programming models and tools Security, mobility, robustness, manageability, scalability Diverse node configurations: data centers, backbone PoPs, enterprise networks, wireless APs The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  38. Networking Research and CIO Org • 1970-80s • Close collaboration between research groups and CIO org • PhD students worked for CIO and produced some of the best research • 1990s and beyond • CIO orgs focused on providing service and keeping the infrastructure up • Research becoming too sterile -- not benefiting from CIO orgs insights, infrastructure, relationships with vendors • CIO orgs missing the fun and excitement of research and innovations Everyone loses, rate of innovations slows, vendors dominate. [There are of course exceptions: Google and Stanford] The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  39. New Opportunities • Infrastructure virtualization • Multiple virtual infrastructures on same physical infra • Isolation between production & experimental traffic/infra • Production applications can opt-in into experimental infrastructure to exploit new capabilities • Stanford and Princeton want to bring this to your campus on commercial equipment • With EASI and OpenFlow • This is just beginning -- lots of innovations to come • Are you ready? Do you want to enable this? The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu

  40. Executive Summary • Internet has been a great success • Has emerged to be a critical infrastructure for society • It is time to reinvent Internet infrastructure • Being subject to uses and abuses it is not designed for • Can be a even bigger platform for innovations • Many promising approaches being put forward • E.g., EASI and OpenFlow by Stanford and Princeton • CIO organizations have a big role to play • Infrastructure virtualization and OpenFlow can be key enablers The Stanford Clean Slate Program http://cleanslate.stanford.edu