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The Russian Revolution. The story of Russia to USSR Readings: Spodek, pp. 658-661. Nicholas I (1825-1855). Hated Industrial Revolution and French Revolution Wanted to make world safe for autocracy Fought against progress in Russia and Europe. Alexander II (1855-1881) .

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the russian revolution
The Russian Revolution

The story of Russia to USSR

Readings: Spodek, pp. 658-661

nicholas i 1825 1855
Nicholas I (1825-1855)
  • Hated Industrial Revolution and French Revolution
  • Wanted to make world safe for autocracy
  • Fought against progress in Russia and Europe
alexander ii 1855 1881
Alexander II (1855-1881)
  • Son of Nicholas I.
  • He came to the throne during the Crimean War
  • Emancipated the serfs in 1861
alexander iii 1881 1894
Alexander III (1881-1894)
  • Increased the repressive powers of the police
  • Limited the power of the local assemblies
  • Pograms against anyone who was not Russian
russo japanese war 1904 1905
Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
  • Imperialistic Conflict over Korea and Manchuria
  • Russia trying to ward off rebellion
bloody sunday january 22 1905
Bloody Sunday-January 22, 1905
  • Began in St Petersburg
  • Disaster of Russo-Japanese War revealed corruption and incompetence of czar
  • Created Duma, limited economic reform
world war i rasputin
World War I/ Rasputin
  • Had control over the Tsar Nicholas II and the Tsarina
  • Was murdered in December 1916
  • World War I was a disaster.
the revolutions of 1917
The Revolutions of 1917
  • February Revolution (March 8, 1917)
  • Czar Nicholas Abdicates
how do bolsheviks get power
How Do Bolsheviks Get Power?
  • Lenin arrives in Petrograd (St. Petersburg)—April 16. 1917
  • Lenin calls for armed insurrection

—Oct. 16, 1917 (Russian Calendar)

  • October Revolution begins, October 24, 1917 (Russian Calendar), November 6, 1917 (Western European Calendar)
  • Lenin, Trotsky and Stalin
treaty of brest litovsk march 3 1918
Treaty of Brest Litovsk—March 3, 1918
  • Lost 32% of the land
  • Lost Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
  • Much of the Ukraine
  • Much of Belarussia
civil war and lenin s rule
From 1918-1921



Creation of USSR

Nationalization of all land and banks

New Economic Plan

Lenin dies of a stroke

Civil War and Lenin’s Rule
power struggle after lenin s death and stalin s rule
Power Struggle after Lenin’s Death and Stalin’s Rule
  • Forced collectivization
  • “The Great Famine”
  • “The Great Terror”
  • Purges
  • Gulag
contemporary problems
Contemporary Problems
  • Cold War with US from 1945-1991
  • Mikhail Gorbachev’s Glasnost allowed Democracy to Emerge
  • Perestroika—socialism not possible in capitalist world
  • Resigns December 25, 1991
  • End of Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War
boris yeltsin
Boris Yeltsin
  • Problems:
    • Economy was a mess
    • Workers not paid
    • National Debt
    • IMF and World Bank Money to Cronies
    • Politics a Mess
today in russia and the former soviet union
Today in Russia and the Former Soviet Union
  • A weak Boris Yeltsin names Vladimir Putin, former KGB agent, Premier then President
  • Communists Still Have Some Power: Many want stability of Old System back
today s russia continued
Today’s Russia (continued)
  • Ethnic groups want autonomy or Independence
  • Putin has destroyed Chechnya
  • Reports of rapes and pillage
  • Nationalists want powerful Soviet Union
  • Questions still needing answers
winners and losers

Communist Party

Some Workers

Massive Literacy Project—all those who learn to read and write

Vastly improved health care—all those who lived longer and healthier



Poorest peasants

Traditional Russian upper classes

Many of those in traditional Russian middle classes

Those killed or imprisoned because of oppressive regime

Jews, Muslims, other ethnic minorities

Winners and Losers