Essential Question: • How do people interact with the environment and what are some of the consequences of those interactions?
United States History The Colonial Era
Why were the English colonies established? • Mercantilism – economic policy created to increase the wealth & power of a colony’s “mother country”
The English Begin to Settle • The Lost Colonists • 1578, Queen Elizabeth I granted a royal patent to explore & claim American territory • 1583, Sir Humphrey Gilbert claimed Newfoundland. Had to turn back b/c of winter & was never seen again • 1587, Gilbert’s half-brother Sir Walter Raleigh sponsored an expedition of 117 men, women, & children. Settled on Roanoke Island • 1590, Another English ship arrives on Roanoke. Settlement was abandoned. Still unknown what happened
Managing the costs of colonization • Too expensive for individuals to fund. • English entrepreneurs formed joint-stock companies • Meant to share the risk • Expected to earn a return on their investment • Gold, silver, food etc…
1607, Jamestown Colony • Formed by the 100 British men • Settled on the James River in what is now Virginia • Struggled to survive • Colony saved by John Smith’s expertise
1609, another ship arrives • Finds that only 53 of the 100 survived • The ship brought 400 more men but no supplies • John Smith returned to England. • 450 colonists destroyed the town for firewood • Barricaded themselves inside their fort • Ate dogs, rats, & eventually each other. • Only 60 survived the winter. • 500 men & supplies arrived • John Rolfe discovered a new American treasure Tobacco.
Important Term to Know • Salutary neglect - the English inattention to the colonies allowed for the development of self-rule as expressed through the examples provided.
The House of Burgesses • First form of representative legislation in the British North American colonies • This body of government governed local matters & made the laws for the colony
Mayflower Compact • November 11, 1620 • Pilgrims in Massachusetts formed their own government. • They were given a land grant to settle by the London Virginia Co. • They decided to settle north of Virginia and were therefore not bound to an agreement that was made for land in Virginia.
1639 Fundamental Orders of Connecticut • 1st written Constitution in the colonies • New England Town Hall Meetings • Puritans in Massachusetts Bay gave ownership of the town to land owners who discussed matters in an open forum.
Bacon’s Rebellion • 1676 Nathan Bacon was upset over government response to the “Indian” attacks on the settlers. • Bacon formed a small army and began attacking peaceful Indian camp in northern Virginia.
The Foundations of United States Government • Ancient Influences • Greek – Direct Democracy • Roman – Representative Democracy • Influences of the Enlightenment • Founding Father’s influenced by intellectual changes of the 1700s • Enlightenment focused on reason, human thought and experience as opposed to the divine reasoning.
John Locke – All men are born with the natural rights. If rights are not protected, then government can be over-thrown. • Jean Rousseau – promoted the idea of the Social Contractb/n Government & People. Gov. must serve the will of the people. If broken – Revolution is justified. • Baron de Montesquieu - Divide power into more than one branch of government
The French & Indian War 1754 - 1763
A War for control of North America • French allied themselves with “Indians” • Colonists fought with the British • Lasted 9 years 1754 - 1763
The Albany Plan • Benjamin Franklin proposed a loose union for the colonies • Colonists were unwilling to surrender power to a central government, and so the plan fails, but is important, however, because it created a model for the formation eventual formation of the United States of America.
Let the fighting begin! • 1754 Lieutenant Colonel George Washington sent to advise the French that the Ohio Valley dispute had been settled but he was rebuffed. • Washington returns with troops and defeats the French garrison • The French return and force Washington to surrender and withdraw to Virginia. Washington’s surrender triggers a series of Indian raids along the frontier in response to 150 years of bad treatment by the British.
King George the II names William Pitt the head of the war ministry. Pitt focuses on the colonies by send large number of troops as well as demanding colonists defend themselves against the French. His tactic worked and along with a strong British Navy, which the French could not match, the British soon gained the upper hand. French formally surrender the Americas in 1760
The French & Indian War’s Impact on the Colonies • Britain’s debt skyrocketed forcing them to consider taxing the colonies. • William Pitt’s insistence that colonists defend themselves added to an already growing sense of independence. • Success on the battlefield contributed to the colonist’s belief that their reliance on England was coming to an end. • The war boosted the Americans sense of unity and distinction from the English.
Britain’s Financial Problems • People were the most heavily taxed • New plan to raise money in the colonies • Sugar Act: • marked the start of Britain’s new policy towards colonies in effort raise money. This was enforced through a series of rules. Ships would be seized if they forgot to pay. • Smuggling charges would be tried in British courts rather American. • All smuggling cases were decided by a judge. • The judge received 5 percent commission on all illegal cargo and fines.
Stamp Act: taxed newspapers, pamphlets, legal documents ect. • Required an official government stamp, to show the tax was paid. • This was when the American’s realized that they were being taxed to simply raise money. (They were told the Sugar Act was a way to regulate trade) • This tax created a wide spread negative reaction. • Unlike the Sugar Act which would might apply to only New England shippers or southern tobacco growers, the Stamp Act affected everyone including some of the most powerful people in the colonies – printers, merchants, and lawyers.
1765 – Stamp Act Congress • Met in New York • Main organizer was James Otis who since 1761 claimed that because the colonists had no representatives in the British Parliament it had no right to force laws on the colonies. • “NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENTATION” • SONS OF LIBERTY • Merchants who organized boycotts of British goods. • Samuel Adams and his men threaten those who distribute the stamp. • Stamp act had been repealed; however, the question remained: Could there be taxation without representation in Parliament?
Townshend Act: • 1767 placed duties on certain imported goods, including glass & tea. • Boston Massacre • March 5, 1770 British soldiers killed 5 after a confrontation. • The British officer & soldiers were arrested & charged with murder. • John Adams (a harsh critic of the British agreed to defend them, as he believed they deserved a fair trial.) • 7 not guily, & 2 guilty of lesser charges.
Boston Tea Party • To help the British East India Company, the tea act was passed • Gave them the right to sell tea in America without paying the normal taxes. • This would bring the British prices way down. • December 16, 1773 • Colonists dressed as Indians boarded three ships in Boston, and broke every crate on board and threw the tea into the harbor.
The Intolerable Acts • To punish Boston British enacted a series of laws known as the Coercive Acts. B/C they were viewed as being harsh they were referred to as intolerable..
First Continental Congress • September 5, 1774. • 56 delegates from all but Georgia • Renewed Boycott & a call for all to arm themselves & form militias. • Made direct appeal to the King listing grievances. • They agreed to meet again if nothing was resolved. • King was stubborn and wrote: The New England colonies in a state of rebellion, blows must decide.”
Fighting @ Lexington & Concord • April 18 1775 British troops moved out of Boston to go to Concord to seize guns & ammo that was being stockpiled by militias from Massachusetts. • The secret mission was discovered, so Paul Revere, William Dawes, & Dr. Samuel Prescott was sent out on horseback to get new “Patriot Leaders.” (The rebels referred to themselves as Patriots) • Paul Revere arrived in Lexington, (five miles from Concord) and warned Samuel Adams & John Hancock that the British were coming. • British arrived at Lexington & were met by 70 armed militia, (minute men). • The militia were told to put down their weapons & they would not be harmed. Then somebody fired, but it is unclear who shot first. 8 men from the militia were killed & 10 wounded.
British continued to Concord & burned the stockpiles of weapons. • From behind trees & walls, around 4,000 Patriots waited to shoot at the British from as they returned to Boston. • In the end 70 British Soldiers were killed & 170 wounded. • The Revolutionary War had begun.