Treats soil/plant-atmosphere coupling differences explicitly. Accommodates off-nadir thermal sensor view angles . Provides information on soil/plant fluxes and stress. Two-Source Model ( TSM*) Parameterization of Soil & Canopy Sensible Heat Flux (H).
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coupling differences explicitly
thermal sensor view angles
Provides information on
soil/plant fluxes and stress
Two-Source Model (TSM*) Parameterization of
Soil & Canopy Sensible Heat Flux (H)
TR(q) ~ fc(q)Tc + [1-fc(q)]Ts
Norman, Kustas et al. (1995)
*Past attempts in deriving radiometric–aerodynamic relations for one-source modeling approaches using
experimental data have been found to be site and condition specific, and hence not robust for applications
in heterogeneous landscapes.
TSM Parameterization of Soil & Canopy lE
lE = lEC + lES
for a Variety of Land Cover/Climate Conditions
RMSE ~ 55 W m-2
RMSE ~ 50 W m-2
RMSE ~ 80 W m-2
RMSE ~ 90 W m-2
Comparison of Flux Partitioning Between a Detailed SVAT (Cupid*) versus TSM
Under Full Range in Soil and Vegetation Conditions
*Cupid is a detailed, multi-source SVAT model that simulates a wide variety of physiological and environmental processes simultaneously (Norman, 1979, 1988, 1993).
Using Time-Differencing Approaches
Anderson et al., 1997
Norman et al., 2003
DTRAD - GOES
fc - MODIS
TRAD - TM, ASTER, MODIS
fc - TM, ASTER, MODIS