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  1. Pangea, et al Until about 80,000 BC

  2. DNA Map – Patterns to 80,000 BC C B A 80,000 BC 50,000-40,000 BC 2500 BC

  3. Ancient Wisdom Creation & flood stories in all ancient relgions Mesopotamian (3500 BC), African (3200 BC), Chinese (2100 BC), Hebrew (2000) & Indian (1600 BC) animism Egyptian other-world beliefs/monotheism (1700 BC)

  4. North Africa and Mesopotamia About 8,000BC By 4000 Sailboats, Calendars, Mining Money Villages of 30-300 all over the world: tools, language, faith, rituals, stories Villages grow to 2000-5000, now small cities By 5000 add pottery, sculpture, architecture. world population 40 million

  5. Summer, Akaad, Egypt, India, Persia and China The first civilizations (life in cities) around 3700 add: Urbanization Government, taxes Intervillage trade Armies, war Education Institutionalized Religion Writing, Libraries Social Order

  6. World Religions 4.8 out of 7.2 billion people

  7. Historical Order of Higher Religions Egyptian – 2400 BC polytheism(occasional monotheism) Hebrew – 2000 BC monotheism Hindu – 1200 BC (original monotheism; then polytheism) Buddhism – 600 BC (various positions re God) Confucian – 500 BC (no position re God) Shinto – 500 BC (polytheism) Christianity – 32 AD (monotheism) Islam – 622 AD (monotheism)

  8. Foundation of Western Faiths Abraham 2160BC From Ur of the Chaldees across the Fertile Crescent to Palestine Jews, Christians, Muslims all consider themselves children of Abraham

  9. Higher civilizations golden age: Israel (940) and Greece (420)

  10. The Hebrew Thinker Solomon (970-940 – king, poet, philosopher): the goal of life is wisdom (practical success) and it is attained by spiritual insight to life and obedience to God Proverbs Song of Solomon Ecclesiastes

  11. The Hebrew Writers Isaiah (700s – statesman, prophet, poet): God has a plan which is being worked out in all nations and all history to restore humanity to himself through his Messiah. Isaiah, Joel, Amos, Micah, Hosea, Jonah Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Obadiah, Nahum, Habakkuk Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi

  12. The Hebrew Prophets Ezekiel (500s –Babylon): God is able to lift up and tear down nations, based on personal and social morality. All nations are in his hands. He will restore Israel. Daniel (500s – interpreter, administrator): the purpose of life is using your gifts to do good to everyone and also obeying the word of God and the spirit of God.

  13. Greece: The Presocratics Predate Socrates (469-399 B.C.) Rejected mythologies Emphasized reason and monotheism Scientific & philosophical questions Most important: Thales, Parminides, Hereclitus

  14. Socrates, Plato, Aristotle God used the forms of truth (his ideas) to unite energy into matter and give it specific shape and purpose The goal of life is wisdom. By reason and innate ideas we can discover the truth and purpose of things and rule ourselves. Ideal-the philosopher-king

  15. Israel and Greece Monotheism State & Religion separate Morality & Religion Philosophy of History Sense of Destiny

  16. Hinduism Original monotheism (Brahma) about 1100BC which is manifested as three forces: Preserver and protector Creator and guide Destroyer and restorer 900 BC seen as three gods: Bramah, Vishnu, Shiva These gods manifest themselves on earth by an avatar (incarnation). There have been hundreds of incarnations as local gods or demi-gods.

  17. Hinduism Teaching Today: The atman (soul) is linked with brahman (eternal being) but is now caught in rebirth into suffering. The way to escape (msksha) the cycle of suffering is to achieve realization that atman is brahman and nothing else is important. Major writings are the four Vedas, and the commentaries called the Upanishads Life is a cycle of birth, marriage, death, rebirth – a cycle of suffering punctuated with festivals

  18. Ancient Values Value of polytheism Value of monotheism Value of the individual Value of the collective

  19. Rome The Empire The Republic Building a total package around the value of the collective, esp. the nobility

  20. Roman Empire

  21. Challenges to Rome from three sources • Huns (Germans) in the north-east older form of pre-civilized culture, pagan, tribal, warlike • Celts (French, English, Irish) in the north-west older form of pre-civilized culture, pagan, tribal, traders • Christians (messianic Jews) from the east new form of culture: monotheistic, moral, peaceful, open to all cultures, integrative, value of the individual