Pangea, et al. Until about 80,000 BC. DNA Map – Patterns to 80,000 BC. C. B. A. 80,000 BC. 50,000-40,000 BC. 2500 BC. Ancient Wisdom. Creation & flood stories in all ancient relgions. Mesopotamian (3500 BC), African (3200 BC), Chinese (2100 BC), Hebrew (2000) & Indian (1600 BC) animism.
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Until about 80,000 BC
Creation & flood stories in all ancient relgions
Mesopotamian (3500 BC), African (3200 BC), Chinese (2100 BC), Hebrew (2000) & Indian (1600 BC) animism
Egyptian other-world beliefs/monotheism (1700 BC)
Villages of 30-300 all over the world: tools, language, faith, rituals, stories
Villages grow to 2000-5000, now small cities
By 5000 add pottery, sculpture, architecture. world population 40 million
The first civilizations (life in cities) around 3700 add:
4.8 out of 7.2 billion people
Egyptian – 2400 BC polytheism(occasional monotheism)
Hebrew – 2000 BC monotheism
Hindu – 1200 BC (original monotheism; then polytheism)
Buddhism – 600 BC (various positions re God)
Confucian – 500 BC (no position re God)
Shinto – 500 BC (polytheism)
Christianity – 32 AD (monotheism)
Islam – 622 AD (monotheism)
From Ur of the Chaldees across the Fertile Crescent to Palestine
Jews, Christians, Muslims all consider themselves children of Abraham
Israel (940) and Greece (420)
Solomon (970-940 – king, poet, philosopher): the goal of life is wisdom (practical success) and it is attained by spiritual insight to life and obedience to God
Song of Solomon
Isaiah (700s – statesman, prophet, poet): God has a plan which is being worked out in all nations and all history to restore humanity to himself through his Messiah.
Isaiah, Joel, Amos, Micah, Hosea, Jonah
Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Obadiah, Nahum, Habakkuk
Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi
Ezekiel (500s –Babylon):
God is able to lift up and tear down nations, based on personal and social morality. All nations are in his hands. He will restore Israel.
Daniel (500s – interpreter, administrator): the purpose of life is using your gifts to do good to everyone and also obeying the word of God and the spirit of God.
Predate Socrates (469-399 B.C.)
Emphasized reason and monotheism
Scientific & philosophical questions
Most important: Thales, Parminides, Hereclitus
God used the forms of truth (his ideas) to unite energy into matter and give it specific shape and purpose
The goal of life is wisdom. By reason and innate ideas we can discover the truth and purpose of things and rule ourselves.
State & Religion separate
Morality & Religion
Philosophy of History
Sense of Destiny
Original monotheism (Brahma) about 1100BC which is manifested as three forces:
Preserver and protector
Creator and guide
Destroyer and restorer
900 BC seen as three gods: Bramah, Vishnu, Shiva
These gods manifest themselves on earth by an avatar (incarnation). There have been hundreds of incarnations as local gods or demi-gods.
Teaching Today: The atman (soul) is linked with brahman (eternal being) but is now caught in rebirth into suffering. The way to escape (msksha) the cycle of suffering is to achieve realization that atman is brahman and nothing else is important.
Major writings are the four Vedas, and the commentaries called the Upanishads
Life is a cycle of birth, marriage, death, rebirth – a cycle of suffering punctuated with festivals
Value of polytheism
Value of monotheism
Value of the individual
Value of the collective
Building a total package around the value of the collective, esp. the nobility
older form of pre-civilized culture, pagan, tribal, warlike
older form of pre-civilized culture, pagan, tribal, traders
new form of culture: monotheistic, moral, peaceful,
open to all cultures, integrative, value of the individual