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Pangea, et al. Until about 80,000 BC. DNA Map – Patterns to 80,000 BC. C. B. A. 80,000 BC. 50,000-40,000 BC. 2500 BC. Ancient Wisdom. Creation & flood stories in all ancient relgions. Mesopotamian (3500 BC), African (3200 BC), Chinese (2100 BC), Hebrew (2000) & Indian (1600 BC) animism.

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Pangea, et al

Until about 80,000 BC


DNA Map – Patterns to 80,000 BC




80,000 BC

50,000-40,000 BC

2500 BC


Ancient Wisdom

Creation & flood stories in all ancient relgions

Mesopotamian (3500 BC), African (3200 BC), Chinese (2100 BC), Hebrew (2000) & Indian (1600 BC) animism

Egyptian other-world beliefs/monotheism (1700 BC)


North Africa and Mesopotamia

About 8,000BC

By 4000





Villages of 30-300 all over the world: tools, language, faith, rituals, stories

Villages grow to 2000-5000, now small cities

By 5000 add pottery, sculpture, architecture. world population 40 million


Summer, Akaad, Egypt, India, Persia and China

The first civilizations (life in cities) around 3700 add:


Government, taxes

Intervillage trade

Armies, war


Institutionalized Religion

Writing, Libraries

Social Order


World Religions

4.8 out of 7.2 billion people

historical order of higher religions
Historical Order of Higher Religions

Egyptian – 2400 BC polytheism(occasional monotheism)

Hebrew – 2000 BC monotheism

Hindu – 1200 BC (original monotheism; then polytheism)

Buddhism – 600 BC (various positions re God)

Confucian – 500 BC (no position re God)

Shinto – 500 BC (polytheism)

Christianity – 32 AD (monotheism)

Islam – 622 AD (monotheism)

foundation of western faiths

Foundation of Western Faiths

Abraham 2160BC

From Ur of the Chaldees across the Fertile Crescent to Palestine

Jews, Christians, Muslims all consider themselves children of Abraham


Higher civilizations golden age:

Israel (940) and Greece (420)


The Hebrew Thinker

Solomon (970-940 – king, poet, philosopher): the goal of life is wisdom (practical success) and it is attained by spiritual insight to life and obedience to God


Song of Solomon



The Hebrew Writers

Isaiah (700s – statesman, prophet, poet): God has a plan which is being worked out in all nations and all history to restore humanity to himself through his Messiah.

Isaiah, Joel, Amos, Micah, Hosea, Jonah

Jeremiah, Zephaniah, Obadiah, Nahum, Habakkuk

Ezekiel, Daniel, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi


The Hebrew Prophets

Ezekiel (500s –Babylon):

God is able to lift up and tear down nations, based on personal and social morality. All nations are in his hands. He will restore Israel.

Daniel (500s – interpreter, administrator): the purpose of life is using your gifts to do good to everyone and also obeying the word of God and the spirit of God.


Greece: The Presocratics

Predate Socrates (469-399 B.C.)

Rejected mythologies

Emphasized reason and monotheism

Scientific & philosophical questions

Most important: Thales, Parminides, Hereclitus


Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

God used the forms of truth (his ideas) to unite energy into matter and give it specific shape and purpose

The goal of life is wisdom. By reason and innate ideas we can discover the truth and purpose of things and rule ourselves.

Ideal-the philosopher-king


Israel and Greece


State & Religion separate

Morality & Religion

Philosophy of History

Sense of Destiny



Original monotheism (Brahma) about 1100BC which is manifested as three forces:

Preserver and protector

Creator and guide

Destroyer and restorer

900 BC seen as three gods: Bramah, Vishnu, Shiva

These gods manifest themselves on earth by an avatar (incarnation). There have been hundreds of incarnations as local gods or demi-gods.


Teaching Today: The atman (soul) is linked with brahman (eternal being) but is now caught in rebirth into suffering. The way to escape (msksha) the cycle of suffering is to achieve realization that atman is brahman and nothing else is important.

Major writings are the four Vedas, and the commentaries called the Upanishads

Life is a cycle of birth, marriage, death, rebirth – a cycle of suffering punctuated with festivals


Ancient Values

Value of polytheism

Value of monotheism

Value of the individual

Value of the collective



The Empire

The Republic

Building a total package around the value of the collective, esp. the nobility

challenges to rome from three sources
Challenges to Rome from three sources
  • Huns (Germans) in the north-east

older form of pre-civilized culture, pagan, tribal, warlike

  • Celts (French, English, Irish) in the north-west

older form of pre-civilized culture, pagan, tribal, traders

  • Christians (messianic Jews) from the east

new form of culture: monotheistic, moral, peaceful,

open to all cultures, integrative, value of the individual