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22 November 2005 Interactive Mobile TV: Group and Resource Management Haitham Cruickshank University of Surrey PowerPoint Presentation
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22 November 2005 Interactive Mobile TV: Group and Resource Management Haitham Cruickshank University of Surrey. Introduction. Multicast concept attracts growing attentions from mobile operators due to its capability of efficient service delivering:

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

22 November 2005

Interactive Mobile TV:

Group and Resource Management

Haitham Cruickshank

University of Surrey

introduction
Introduction
  • Multicast concept attracts growing attentions from mobile operators due to its capability of efficient service delivering:
    • Unlike unicast in which data are send to individual receivers, in multicast one copy of data is transmitted from source to multiple receivers.
    • Unlike broadcast (such as TV service), multicast distribution focused on group services.
  • Interworking of multicast-enabled networks is an interesting solution for Beyond 3G systems.
  • Examples of multicast services:
    • Audio and video streaming: such as on demand video and web TV/radio
    • Content delivery: such as electronic newspaper and notification system for sport news, up-to-date business information e.g. stock rates
    • Multiplayer games
challenges for multicast user services

UMTS Core

DVB Distribution

Network

WLAN Core

U: UMTS

D:DVB

W:WLAN

U/D/W

U/W

U/D/W

U/D

U

Challenges for Multicast User Services

Content Provider

External PDN / Internet

DVB-T/H

SRAN

UTRAN

WLAN

AP

(W)

(U)

(D)

(D)

(U)

requirements for successful interworking
Requirements for Successful Interworking
  • Advanced resource management and session management functionality to achieve desired multicast delivery coordination.
  • Mechanism that allow:
    • Selection of suitable delivery networks
    • Selection of appropriate service flows
    • Dynamically act on network conditions, e.g. load balancing
  • Awareness of interested receivers and their heterogeneity expressed by receiver context information.
  • Scalable mechanisms for network initiated:
    • Multicast bearer establishment and release
    • Vertical network handover for groups of receivers
    • Flow handover for groups of receivers
resource management objectives
Resource Management – Objectives
  • Provide efficient multicast services delivery in a heterogeneous infrastructure comprising multicast-enabled wireless networks.
  • Provide efficient multicast services to heterogeneous receivers with various QoS capabilities and network interfaces.
  • To maximize “profit” for the network operator,while respecting the user’s preference (e.g. acceptable level of delay and QoS).
resource management mechanisms
Resource Management - mechanisms
  • Service Scheduling:
    • Batch multiple requests for the same content into a group for a specific batching duration and then serve them over one common channel
  • Dynamic Access Network Selection:
    • Select the suitable access network and transmission QoS, which satisfies the user’s QoS requirements whilst offering the highest “profit” for the service provisioning
resource management architecture
Resource Management Architecture

Home Network

Content request

RM

MSS

Other cooperative networks

NS/QoSA

RM 3

RM 2

RM 1

Selected access network and QoS

RCC

GM

LM

service

profile

user

profile

RM: resource manager

MSS: multicast service scheduling

NS: network selection

QoSA: QoS adaptation

RCC: resource cost calculation

GM: group manager

LM: local monitor

service scheduling signalling
Service Scheduling Signalling

RM

NS& QoSA

GM

ISS

User requests

Scheduling request (content and user profiles)

Service scheduling

Construct content delivery request

Content delivery request (content and user profiles)

network selection signalling

cooperating network providers

Network Selection Signalling

home network provider

LM

NS& QoSA

RCC

LM

RCC

RCC

LM

RCC

LM

Content delivery request

Require network status

Require network status

Network selection and QoS adaptation

Content delivery reply

Network resources reservation and configuration for contents delivery

group management objectives
Group Management - Objectives
  • Assist resource management by aggregating useful context information of interested receivers of a multicast user service.
  • Provide mechanisms to implement resource management decisions efficiently by:
    • Network initiated multicast bearer establishment/release
    • Network initiated vertical network handover for groups of receivers
    • Flow handover for groups of receivers
  • Scalable delivery of interworking signalling to large receiver groups.
group management architecture

Application

Multicast Middleware

UDP

IGMP

IP

Group Management Architecture

User side

Network side

GMs in

cooperating

networks

Group manager (GM)

Signalling CH

SCF

IGMII

GMMF

NMF

Group Subscription,

e.g. via HTTP

IIGI

Device

Presence

Service

Network

entities

Resource

Management

Group Manager Functional Blocks:

SCF: Session Control Function

GMMF: Group Membership Management Function

NMF: Network Management Function

Interfaces:

MSC: Multicast Signalling Channel

IGMII: Interworking GM Interaction Interface

IGII : Interworking Internal Gateway Interface

multicast signalling channel
Multicast Signalling Channel
  • Motivation
    • Reduce signalling cost - efficient delivery of control signalling for required interworking to a large group of receivers
  • Principles
    • Instead of sending separate message to every receiver, control signalling is delivered to a group via a multicast signalling channel (MSCH)
    • Each user for a multicast user service subscribes to the IoN-MSCH for the duration of a session
    • Novel mechanism for efficient receiver subset addressing of receivers on the IoN-MSCH to minimise required signalling load:
      • Based on context information receivers have in common
signalling example session setup
Signalling Example: Session Setup

Access Router

Group Manager

UE

UE

GMMF

SCF

RM

Service Announcement/Discovery

Group Subscription

Scheduling and

network selection

IGMP join (MSC)

Establish control

plane

ESTABLISH (IP Multicast Address, Network)

IGMP join (IP Multicast Address)

Establish user

plane

IGMP join (IP Multicast Address)

signalling example vertical handover
Signalling Example: Vertical Handover

AR old

AR new

Group Manager

UE

UE

GMMF

SCF

RM

Load balancing

decision

MIGRATE (IP Multicast Address, new Network)

IGMP join (IP Multicast Address)

Switch user plane

IGMP leave (IP Multicast Address)

multicast middleware on user terminal
Multicast Middleware (on user terminal)
  • Provides transparently a seamless multicast socket service to application.
  • On group subscription, it starts listening to a multicast signalling channel to receive control information from group manager.
  • Manages multicast session over terminal interfaces as requested by GM:
    • Establishment, release, migration of multicast bearers by remote subscription approach
    • Flow mobility
  • Forwards incoming data flows to application.
implementation demonstration scheduling and network selection
Implementation Demonstration: Scheduling and Network Selection
  • Each group membership subscription triggers scheduling function:
    • Scheduling either size- or time-based
    • When threshold is reached Network Selection is invoked
  • GMMF provides Network Selection with user group and relevant context information.
  • Network Selection algorithm selects appropriate QoS and network for each user in the group.
  • Network Selection notifies Session Control Function in group manager to initiate session establishment.
implementation demonstration session control signalling
Implementation Demonstration : Session Control Signalling
  • Session Control Function (SCF) determines subgroups based on selected networks and QoS.
  • Extracts common context information for receivers of each subgroup and creates addressing expression uniquely identifying each subgroup.
  • Sends a control message for establishment/release for each subgroup via the Interworking-MSCH for the multicast user service
implementation demonstration bearer setup on receiver
Implementation Demonstration : Bearer Setup on Receiver
  • Multicast middleware in receiver obtains control message via interworking-MSCH.
  • Middleware evaluates addressing expression:
    • it joins the identified multicast group on the specified network interface.
  • Incoming multicast session data is forwarded by the middleware to the application.
implementation demonstration multicast middleware
Implementation Demonstration : Multicast Middleware
  • Middleware for session layer functionality
    • Based on TESLA toolkit (same as Migrate)
    • Dynamic library interposition principle
    • Code complexity ~ 2000 LoC (Lines of Code)

Application

Multicast Middleware

Tesla

C-library/OS

middleware bearer establishment 1
Middleware: Bearer Establishment - 1

1, Gets IP multicast address/port of Interworking-MSCH via announcement

2. Opens and binds socket

Application

Multicast Middleware (MM)

C-library/OS

3. Multicast middleware opens real socket using provided IP multicast address/port

4. Starts listening to commands from group manager

middleware bearer establishment 2
Middleware: Bearer Establishment - 2

7. Starts forwarding incoming data to application

Application

Interworking-MM

C-library/OS

6. Establishes multicast socket on

Identified interface for data plane

5. Receives establish request

(IP Multicast address/port/network)

middleware vertical handover 1
Middleware: Vertical Handover - 1

3. Still forward data from old socket until data from new one arrives

Application

Interworking-MM

C-library/OS

1. Receives migrate request

Old and new

(IP Multicast address/port/network)

2. Establishes new multicast socket on

Identified interface for new data plane

middleware vertical handover 2
Middleware: Vertical Handover - 2

6. Application receives data from new socket

Application

Interworking-MM

C-library/OS

5. Old data plane is released

4. New data arrives

implementation demonstration network equipment
Implementation Demonstration: Network Equipment
  • Network infrastructure
    • 2 Cisco routers (2600 series)
    • 1 GigabitEthernet Layer3 switch
    • Layer 2 switches
    • 1 WLAN access point
  • Servers
    • Interworking gateway (GM/RM)
    • Streaming servers
    • Web server
  • Clients
    • 3 Laptops with Ethernet/WLAN card
    • Fedora Core 3 Linux
implementation demonstration gateway implementation
Implementation Demonstration: Gateway Implementation
  • Implementation language C++ and QT library:
    • Portable to any platform
    • Code complexity ~ 8000 LoC
  • Features:
    • Multithreaded group management server
    • Service Manager for service creation
    • Each service provides:
      • its own grouping, and up to 2 different service flows
      • scheduling (size and timeout based)
      • network selection function (by the RM function)
      • its own Interworking-MSCH (messages XML based)
    • User context information data base and browser
other components
Other components
  • Webserver
    • Apache 2
    • HTML fronted for user subscription
    • Python script as subscription backend to group manager
  • Streaming Server
    • Video LAN Client (VLC) as video server
      • Currently streaming UDP however RTP also possible
  • User request simulation
    • Python script
resource and group management conclusions
Resource and Group Management: Conclusions
  • In interworked heterogeneous wireless networks:
    • Resource management focuses on service scheduling, and network selection
    • Group management focuses on aggregation of receiver context information to support RM in its decision making
    • Close interaction between resource and group management during set-up and handover.
  • Combined interworking and multicast is a promising solution to extended services in existing wireless networks.