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CONTACT INFORMATION

CONTACT INFORMATION

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CONTACT INFORMATION

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  1. CONTACT INFORMATION • 2902 North Leonard Road 64506 • Office Phone: 232-6706 • Social Science Office: 271-4340 • Continuing Education: 271-4100 • Office Fax: 232-6480 • E-Mail: IRAN26@been-there.com

  2. academic.mwsc.edu/albright • Photo exhibit on Tel Bethsaida • Links to excellent archaeology web sites • Biographical data • Syllabus and handouts • Archaeology trip information • Tel Bethsaida web site

  3. Max Mallowan and Agatha Christie ……”Who are you, sir?” to him I said, “For what is it you look?” His answer trickled through my head Like bloodstains in a book…..

  4. “His accents mild were full of wit”…….. “Five thousand years ago Is really, when I think of it, The choicest age I know. And once you learn to scorn A.D. And you have got the knack, Then you could come and dig with me, And never wander back.”

  5. Continued the author: But I was thinking how to thrust Some arsenic into tea, And could not all at once adjust My mind so far B.C. I looked at him and softly sighed, His face was pleasant too….. “Come tell me how you live?” I cried, And what it is you do?”

  6. EARLY ATTEMPTS AT ARCHAEOLOGY: • Antiquarians • Collectors • Classifiers • Looters and Robbers

  7. Pseudo-archaeology • Chariots of the Gods (van Daniken) • King Tut’s tomb • The Pyramids

  8. ARCHAEOLOGY • The scientific study of the material remains of man’s past….. • Scientific study (Techniques, Methods, • Theoretical Frameworks) • Material remains • Man’s past

  9. THREE STEPS TO THIS DISCIPLINE: • 1. Excavation • 2. Recording • 3. Decipherment, explanation and interpretation

  10. Why Ancient Man Settled In The Same Location • Water • Land • Defense

  11. THE FORMS OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA • Artifacts • Features • Structures • Ecofacts

  12. Classifier: Christian Thomsen • Early 1800’s • Danish museum curator • Stone Age Bronze Age Iron Age

  13. STONE AGES • Paleolithic (Old Stone Age): 700,000-15,000 B.C. • Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age): 15,000-8300 B.C. • Neolithic (New Stone Age): 8300-4200 B.C. • Chalcolithic (Copper/Stone Age) 4200-3100 B.C.

  14. Prehistorical and Historical • Writing invented by the Sumerians in Mesopotamia • 3,000 B.C. • B.C. and A.D. • B.C.E. and A.C.E. • B.P. and A.P.

  15. THE GREAT RIFT • Louis and Mary Leakey; Richard Leakey • Olduvai Gorge • Lake Victoria: Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya

  16. James Breasted • The Fertile Crescent • Southwest end (Egypt): Nile River Valley • Southeast end (Mesopotamia): Tigris and Euphrates River Valleys • Israel, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey • Jordan River Valley of Israel

  17. TEL MEGIDDO • 120-180 feet high; 16 acres • 22 strata • Early Bronze (before 3300 B.C.) to Persian (600-350 B.C.)

  18. THE TOMB OF KING TUT • Howard Carter • 1907-1922 • Valley of the Kings • Lord Carnarvon

  19. DATING THE PAST • 1. Historical records (present day to 3,000 B.C.) • 2. Dendrochronology (back to 8000 BC) • 3. Radiocarbon dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years ago) • 4. Potassium argon dating (250,000 B.C. to origins of early life)

  20. Two Sources of Information • Written: (Historical or Text-aided Archaeology ) stone, clay tablets, wood, metal, papyrus, parchment • Unwritten (Prehistoric Archaeology) buildings, sculptures, ceramics, tools, weaponry, jewelry, coins, food, bones

  21. THE VALUE OF ARCHAEOLOGY 1. It provides the color for the black-and- white sketch of history 2. Historical records are by no means complete 3. Helps in the translation and explanation of languages 4. Validates some literature that was thought to be inaccurate

  22. THE FERTILE CRESCENT • James Breasted • The Great Rift • Olduvai Gorge

  23. ARCHAEOLOGY • “Archaios” and “logos” • Zoology • Psychology • Anthropology • Sociology

  24. The Scientific Study of Humanity • Cultural Anthropology • Physical Anthropology • Archaeology • Linguistics

  25. HEINRICH SCHLIEMANN • Homer’s Iliad and Odyssey • Troy and Mycenae, 1869 • “The Greek Treasure” • Sir Arthur Evans and the Minoans, 1899

  26. CERAMIC INDEX • Sir Flinders Petrie, late 1800’s • Egyptian Predynastic tombs • Diospolis Parva • Based on ceramic attributes • Egyptian chronology the basis for most chronological schemes

  27. ARCHAEOLOGICAL DATA: STAGES OF HUMAN BEHAVIOR • 1. Acquisition • 2. Manufacture • 3. Use • 4. Deposition

  28. GOALS OF ARCHAEOLOGY • 1. Studying sites and their contents • 2. Reconstructing past lifeways and history • 3. Studying cultural process • 4. Understanding the archaeological record which is a part of our contemporary world

  29. TEL AND HORVAT • Tel: a man-made hill ruin • Tel: Arabic • Horvat: Hebrew

  30. Debitage at Chaco Canyon • Flint Flakes • Evidence of trading • Lookout point

  31. DATING THE PAST • Historical records (present day to 3000 B.C.) • Dendrochronology (present day to 8000 B.C.) • Radiocarbon Dating (A.D. 1500 to 40,000 years ago) • Potassium Argon Dating (250,000 years ago to the origins of life)

  32. CIVILIZATION A level of cultural attainment marked by: • Presence of writing • Monumental architecture • Stratified social system

  33. ORIGINS OF CIVILIZATION • Ecology • Population growth • Technology • Irrigation • Growth of trade • Warfare • Religion

  34. NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION • 1st ground stone technology • 1st domestication of plants and animals • 1st agricultural projects • 1st population explosion • 1st architecture • 1st weaving from domestication • 1st pottery

  35. JERICHO • Tel: 6 acres in area and 70 ft. high • Oldest continually inhabited city • Ideal environment • Evidence of domesticated grains • Trade network • Defensive fortifications

  36. MESOPOTAMIA • Tigris and Euphrates rivers • Greek meaning “land between the rivers” • 600 miles long; 250 miles wide • Long, intensely hot summers • Harsh, cold winters • Rainfall: minimal and varied

  37. MESOPOTAMIAN CONTRIBUTIONS • Wheel • Chariot • Writing • Metallurgy • Mathematical functions of mulitiplication and division • Lunar Calender

  38. MESOPOTAMIAN PERIODS • Ubaid 5800-3000 B.C. • Sumerian 3000-2300 B.C. • Old Babylonian/Akkadian 2334-1600 BC • Kassite/Hittite 1600-1300 B.C. • Assyrian 1300-612 B.C. • Babylonian/Medes 612-330 B.C.

  39. URUK: The World’s 1st City • Two innovations: writing and metallurgy • 4500 B.C. • 617 acres with villages extending as extensive as 6 miles • Dominated by a ziggurat (temple mound)

  40. Sumer: The World of the First Cities • 3500-3200 B.C.: lst civilized territory on the globe • 3200-2000 B.C.: Sumerian Era • lst 900 years had no unified government • City states: Uruk, Ur, Lagash • 2320 B.C. all Sumer conquered by a mighty warrior from Akkad (Sargon the Great)

  41. SARGON • Ruler of Akkadian Civilization • Conquered Sumerian Civilization • Covered Sumer (south) and Akkad (north) • Ur of the Chaldees: excavated by Sir Leonard Wooley (Royal cemetery; series of kings/queens and retinue; one had 59 servants buried)

  42. Sumerian Civilization • 3100-2334 B.C. • No metal, timber, semiprecious stones • Imported copper, gold and other ores • Widespread use of bronze • Metal plows; increased agricultural yields • Region-wide trade network • 1st use of clay tablets for extensive record keeping; Gilgamesh Epic

  43. CUNEIFORM • Mesopotamia • “Wedge-shaped” • Ideogram • Stone inscriptions and clay tablets • Mari: 20,000 tablets

  44. Cuneiform Deciphered • Henry Rawlinson (1810-1895) • Worked two years copying inscription; using ladders, ropes and slings • Behistun Stone • Persian King Darius battling Gaumata with the help of god Ahuramazda • Old Persian (414), Elamite (263), Akkadian (112)

  45. Hammurabi • Ur gave way to Babylon and its Semitic rulers • Old Babylonian Empire • 2334-1650 B.C. • “Code of Hammurabi”: 1792-1750 B.C. • 282 laws

  46. HITTITE INTERLUDE • From Anatolia (eastern Turkey) • 1600 B.C. • Capital: Hattusas • Control of 3 continents and seas • Created light-chariot warfare; horses • Excavated in 1907 • Archive of 20,000 tablets in Indo-European language

  47. Uluburun Ship • Coast of southern Turkey; 1310 B.C. • 350 copper ingots each weighing 60 lbs. • Ton of resin in two-handles jars from Syria • Ingots of blue glass; hardwood; amber; turtle shells; elephant tusks; hippo teeth; ostrich eggs; jars of olives; large jars filled with Cannaanite and Mycenean pottery

  48. Assyrian and Babylonian • 900-539 B.C. • Assyrian capital: Nineveh • King Assurnasirpal’s party • Tiglath Pileser III destroyed Bethsaida in 732 B.C. • Last great Assyrian king Assurbanipal died in 630 B.C. • Babylonians take over in 612 B.C.

  49. Sennacherib • Assyrian • 705-681 B.C. • Capital: Nineveh • Invasion of Israel in 702-701 B.C. • Ten Lost Tribes

  50. Nebuchadnezzar • 604-562 B.C. • City of Babylon • Walls of glazed brick • Hanging gardens: one of the ancient seven wonders of the world • Invaded Israel in 587-586 B.C. • State taken over by Cyrus the Persian in 534 B.C.