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Functional Assessment of Behavior Problems Chapter 7. SE – 608 John W. Maag Behavior Management from Theoretical Implications to Practical Applications Second Edition. Out of seat Runs around room Yelling, screaming, crying Disturbs peers

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functional assessment of behavior problems chapter 7

Functional Assessment of Behavior ProblemsChapter 7

SE – 608

John W. Maag Behavior Management from Theoretical Implications to Practical Applications Second Edition

characteristics of challenging behavior
Out of seat

Runs around room

Yelling, screaming, crying

Disturbs peers

Aggressive to self/others: hitting, biting, pinching, scratching, pulling hair, throwing things

Destroys property

Temper tantrums

Excluded from activities by peers

Steals

Self-stimulatory behaviors: rocking, hand-flapping, finger-flicking, or spinning objects

Physical complaints

Ignores teacher/other adults

Non-compliant

Argues (talks back)

Distorts the truth

Does not complete assignments

Characteristics of Challenging Behavior
why do we need to conduct a functional behavior analysis
Why do we need to conduct a functional behavior analysis?
  • To determine if a student is eligible for special education
  • To meet the federally mandated requirement of the IEP (i.e. if a student’s behavior interferes with his/her learning or the learning of others)
  • To pave the way for an intervention
behavior and its function
Behavior and Its Function
  • Why do students exhibit challenging behaviors?
  • What is the purpose of the behavior?
  • What is the function of the behavior?
  • Do antecedents influence behavior as much as consequences?
  • What environmental variables are maintaining the challenging behavior?
what maintains disruptive behavior
What maintains disruptive behavior?
  • Antecedents – the people and events that precede the behavior

And

  • Consequences – when the desired goal is accomplished
what is involved in conducting a functional behavior analysis fba
What is involved in conducting a Functional Behavior Analysis (FBA)?
  • Identify environmental factors that affect the performance of a behavior
  • Identify the desired outcome (function) that the behavior serves
  • Identify a replacement behavior and an appropriate way for the student to obtain the desired goal
basic truths about functional assessment
Basic Truths about Functional Assessment
  • Context affects how a behavior is displayed or interpreted
  • All behavior is purposeful and serves some function
  • Replacement behaviors allow students to appropriately obtain desired outcomes
behavior is purposeful
Behavior Is Purposeful
  • Behavior is purposeful and serves some function for the student
  • Behavioral intent or function describes the relation between the behavior exhibited and the outcome desired
four major functions of student behaviors
Four major functions of student behaviors:
  • Attention – gaining attention (positive reinforcement)
  • Tangible - access to objects or activities (positive reinforcement)
  • Sensory – primarily identified among students with developmental disabilities and perhaps ADHD (positive reinforcement)
  • Escape – avoiding something aversive (negative reinforcement)
functional assessment
Functional Assessment

Step 1: Operational define the behavior

Step 2:Gather information from parents and teachers

Step 3: Observe the behavior using, anecdotal recording, A-B-C recording, Scatter plot

Step 4: Analyze the data and develop a hypothesis of function

Step 5: Intervene the behavior and test the hypothesis

step 1 operational define the behavior
Step 1: Operational Define the Behavior
  • Define the behavior in observable measurable terms
  • Define the behavior to pass the stranger test
  • Does the behavior have a movement cycle/ does it have a specific beginning and ending
step 2 gather information
Step 2: Gather Information

Interview parents and teachers to find out:

  • When are appropriate and inappropriate behaviors most likely to occur?
  • Do the behaviors occur more in one setting verses another?
  • Are there conditions under which the behavior is more likely to occur?
  • What happens when the child exhibits a particular behavior?
step 3 observe the behavior
Step 3: Observe the behavior
  • Decide on the appropriate tool for observing the behavior and collecting the data
  • Observational tools include:
    • Behavior observation charts
    • Scatter plot
    • Anecdotal records
    • A-B-C analysis
scatter plot analysis
Scatter Plot Analysis
  • Easy useful tool for classroom teachers
  • Helpful in identifying a relationship between environmental conditions and behavior
  • Problem behavior may be found to correlate to a time of day, the presence or absence of certain people, social settings, or certain types of activities
anecdotal reports
Anecdotal Reports
  • Provide a complete description of the student’s behavior and the events surrounding the behavior
  • Record each occurrence of the target behavior and the context, activities, and interactions within which it occurs
  • Transfer information to ABC record
step 4 analyze data
Step 4: Analyze Data
  • Antecedent: Is there a pattern of behaviors or events that consistently trigger the challenging behavior?
  • Behavior: What appears to be the function of the behavior? Is the purpose: attention, tangible, sensory, or escape?
  • Consequence: Is there a pattern of behaviors or events that are consistently present following the challenging behavior?
step 4 form a hypothesis
Step 4: Form a Hypothesis

Formulate hypothesis of function

For example:

Hypothesis -- the inappropriate behavior is maintained by reinforcement from the caregiver. Attention is given when the inappropriate behavior is exhibited.

step 5 intervene the behavior and assess the hypothesis
Step 5: Intervene the Behavior and Assess the Hypothesis
  • Compare the baseline data and intervention data
  • Test the hypothesis by withdrawing the intervention
  • Test the hypothesis by using multiple intervention procedures
three types of hypotheses
Three types of hypotheses
  • Functional hypotheses are related to the function or the intent of the behavior and lead to interventions that address behavior replacement strategies
  • Contextual hypotheses relate to the manipulations of the antecedents and consequences
  • Curricular hypotheses focus on identifying the types of curricular, task, and instructional demands that may prompt inappropriate behavior
components of behavioral support plans
Components of Behavioral Support Plans
  • Description of the behavior
  • Results from functional assessment
  • Apply the principals of behavior (i.e. positive reinforcement, Premack Principle/Mom’s rule, shaping, response cost, etc.)
  • Make problem behaviors irrelevant
  • Make problem behaviors ineffective
  • Include a replacement behavior
summary of the findings
Summary of the Findings
  • Behavior support plans generally begin with a summary of the findings
  • Behavior support plans also include a record of previous interventions
  • Evaluate previous interventions to determine the most effective
  • Identify setting event modifications needed to decrease the future occurrences of the target behavior
slide23
Identify instructional interventions needed to facilitate behavior change
  • Include positive reinforcement interventions as consequences to promote the use of replacement behaviors
  • Teach the student replacement/appropriate behaviors that serve the same function as the inappropriate behavior and reinforce appropriate behavior
  • Monitor and evaluate on an on-going basis
importance of reducing challenging behaviors
Importance of Reducing Challenging Behaviors
  • Helps students learn academic, functional, and social skills without demonstrating challenging behaviors
  • Helps prepare students to participate in instructional activities in school
summary
Summary
  • Students present challenging behavior that interferes with their learning and/or the learning of others
  • IDEA requires that a Functional Behavior Analysis (FBA) be conducted to determine the function of the behavior
  • Form an Hypothesis
  • Develop a Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP) or Behavior Support Plan (BSP)