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CHAPTER 5 : Understanding Functional Behavior Assessment. Behavior Management: Principles and Practices of Positive Behavior Supports Third Edition John J. Wheeler David D. Richey. Objectives. Describe the importance of functional behavior assessment (FBA)

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chapter 5 understanding functional behavior assessment

CHAPTER 5:Understanding Functional Behavior Assessment

Behavior Management:

Principles and Practices of Positive Behavior Supports

Third Edition

John J. Wheeler

David D. Richey

objectives
Objectives
  • Describe the importance of functional behavior assessment (FBA)
  • List and discuss assumptions concerning challenging behavior
  • List and discuss the components of the FBA
  • List and describe recommended approaches for the development of a Behavior Support Plan (BSP)
functional behavior assessment
Functional Behavior Assessment
  • FBA has been a widely accepted practice used to assess and better understand challenging behavior in schools since the 1997 Reauthorization of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
functional behavior assessment continued
Functional Behavior Assessment continued…
  • The Functional Behavior Assessment (FBA) is the starting point for the development of the Behavior Support Plan (BSP) in that it:
    • Provides useful and reliable information as to the cause(s), function(s) and maintaining variables associated with challenging forms of behavior
fba and the law
FBA and the Law
  • The use of functional behavior assessment and positive behavior supports was reaffirmed in the 2004 Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act.
assumptions concerning challenging behavior
Assumptions Concerning Challenging Behavior
  • PBS views all behavior as purposeful
  • Challenging behavior occurs as a result of skill deficits that are incongruent with environmental demands and or as a result of performance problems
  • Multiple factors influence challenging behavior
assumptions concerning challenging behavior1
Assumptions Concerning Challenging Behavior
  • PBS and the use of the FBA provides a solution-based alternative to understanding and proactively addressing challenging behaviors
  • Reactive approaches that place blame on the learner and or family are not only unprofessional but provide little in terms of offering a solution
components of the fba
Components of the FBA
  • Combines direct and indirect forms of assessment
      • Operationally define the target behavior
      • Use of a structured interview with teachers, parents and caregivers
      • And/or student-assisted interview aimed at identifying the student’s likes and dislikes relative to school and course content
components of the fba continued
Components of the FBA continued…
  • Further sources of information relative to the target behavior include:
      • Review of student records
      • Behavioral Rating Scales
      • Behavioral Observations
        • A-B-C Recording
        • Frequency or Event Recording
        • Scatter-plot analysis
        • Interval Recording
interval recording
Interval Recording
  • Interval recording includes the use of:
      • Whole Interval Recording-The behavior must occur throughout the entire interval
      • Partial Interval Recording-The behavior occurs only a portion of the interval
      • Momentary Time Sampling-The behavior is observed and at the precise moment the observer notes the occurrence or nonoccurrence of the behavior
summary of the fba process
Summary of the FBA Process
  • The behavior of concern is identified
      • Operationally defined
      • Data collected relative to the behavior
        • Structured interviews
        • Review of student records
        • Scatter-plot analysis
        • Behavioral observations
        • Data collected and analyzed
        • Function(s) of the behavior determined
summary of the fba process continued
Summary of the FBA Process continued…
  • Antecedent and consequence variables associated with the target behavior identified
  • Hypotheses as to cause/effect of the behavior are developed
  • Function-based interventions are designed
  • Behavior Support Plan developed
functional analysis
Functional Analysis
  • A functional analysis is often done when the function of the behavior cannot be determined through the FBA
  • Evolved from the early work of Skinner;
  • Includes analogue assessments, naturalistic assessments, and interviews
functional analysis continued
Functional Analysis continued…
  • Its unique feature is that it attempts to explain (a) function of the behavior, (b) hypotheses re the behavior (b) alter environments, (c) identify alternative responses (replacement behaviors)
functional analysis continued1
Functional Analysis continued…
  • Powerful tool in identifying the function(s) associated with challenging behavior.
  • Has traditionally been conducted through analog assessment (simulations). This in of itself is a potential limitation in terms of the utility of functional analysis in applied settings such as schools
functional analysis continued2
Functional Analysis continued…
  • Typically attention, escape, sensory stimulation, access to tangibles and play are the conditions associated with a functional analysis
developing the behavior support plan bsp
Developing the Behavior Support Plan (BSP)
  • Typically the strategies used in developing the BSP include:
      • Modifying setting events and antecedents
      • Teaching replacement behaviors that serve the same function
      • Modifying consequences using such methods as differential reinforcement in an effort to build the efficiency of the replacement behavior