Independence and the New State. The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution National Unification and Disunion. The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution. Major revolutions: US revolution 1776; French Revolution 1789 Death of monarch by guillotine shatters concepts of absolutism
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Independence and the New State The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution National Unification and Disunion
The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution • Major revolutions: US revolution 1776; French Revolution 1789 • Death of monarch by guillotine shatters concepts of absolutism • Spain immediately denounced French revolution, placed intellectual quarantine on Spain and its colonies • Crown cracking down just as Río de la Plata beginning to feel the benefits and strains of Bourbon Reforms • Catholic Church weakened by expulsion of Jesuits • Creoles and Peninsulares fighting over new wealth in Bs. As. • Northwest and Cuyo impacted by opening of trade in Bs. As.
The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution • Rise of Napoleon Bonaparte • Upset the balance of power within Europe by making war on its neighbors including Spain and Portugal • Spain attacked by Bonaparte in 1793 and shifted back and forth between supporting France and supporting Great Britain • Colonies’ trade affected by shifting European alliances • Napoleon captures Spain and Portugal
The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution • British blockades • Began when Spain joined France against Great Britain • Attacked Buenos Aires in 1797 • in less than a year exports decreased from 5.5 million pesos to less than 500,000 pesos • Convinced Creoles of advantages of free trade • Creoles also heartened by improved ability to compete with Spanish exporters of hide
The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution • Expulsion of other invasions promoted a sense of independence • 1775-1776 worked to push Portuguese out of area • 1806 – Porteños worked to repel British invasion of Buenos Aires without Spanish help
The Río de la Plata in the Age of Revolution • The struggle for Independence within the Río de la Plata • Why two declarations of Independence? • Why did parts of the Río de la Plata break away?
National Unification and Disunion • Who should rule independent Argentina? • Based on Centralist (Unitarian) vs. States’ rights (Federalist) disputes • Where should the government be located? • How much independence would provinces have? • Who would control the revenues of the port of Bs. As. • What would be the relationship between the city and the countryside? • Early efforts at nation building • 1813 Assembly – attempt by Bs. As. to implant liberal ideology • Abolished entailed estates (mayorazgo) • Limited power of the Roman Catholic Church • Freed Indians from tribute, encomienda • Limited African slavery
National Unification and Disunion • Early efforts at nation building (cont…) • Congress of Tucumán 1816 – new declaration of independence • Efforts to reassure interior provinces under attack by Spanish • Most riverine provinces did not attend • Uruguay, Entre Ríos, Santa Fe, and Corrientes • Impediments to Nation Building • Region not actually independent, porteño troops fighting in Uruguay to keep Brazilians out • Buenos Aires believes in free trade, but not free navigation of rivers • Uruguay created in 1828 by British to ensure free navigation
National Unification and Disunion • By 1820 initial efforts at Triumvirates, etc. fail • Tucumán declared itself “Republic of Tucumán” • Caudillos in Santa Fe (EstanislaoLópez), La Rioja (FacundoQuiroga) attacking enemies • Treaty of Pilar • Agreement of caudillo of riverine provinces (Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, Corrientes) to create basis for peace • Based on federalism and free navigation of rivers
National Unification and Disunion • Rivadavian Era (Buenos Aires) • Last gasp of Unitarian liberalism in Buenos Aires before the rise of caudillos • Came to power (1821-1825) during federalist period of extremely weak central government • Minister of Government for Bs. As. Governor MartínRodríguez • Became President of Argentina in 1826 for brief period
National Unification and Disunion • Planned to strengthen economy of Bs. As. And Argentina • Got British investors to form Río de la Plata Mining Association to mine in La Rioja – lost their shirts • Founded the University of Buenos Aires • Expropriated hospitals and schools from the Church and created the Sociedad de Beneficencia in 1823 to run them • Contracted Argentina’s first foreign loan 1824 - £ 1 million • Created system of emphyteusis to gain additional revenues for Bs. As. • Promoted foreign immigration
National Unification and Disunion • Rivadavia as President • Tried to make Buenos Aires the federal capital • Wanted receipts from Bs. As. Port turned over to national government • Opposed by Buenos Aires province, particularly the head of the militia, Juan Manuel de Rosas • Supported by the provinces of the Northwest and Cuyo • Rivadavia forced to resign when confronted by opposition from caudillos from Bs. As. and coastal region • FacundoQuiroga took up the slogan “Religion or Death”