The New State Unit 3, Lesson 1
Statehood for Ohio • More and more settlers moved to the Ohio Territory • Census official population count • Showed more than 45,000 people were living in the area in 1800 • How many people would it need to become a state? State the policy that included this.
New Constitutions • 1787 Constitution of the USA created • Constitution a written plan for government • Replaced the Articles of Confederation, the first plan for government • A state needed its own constitution besides having a population of 60,000 people.
New Constitutions • November 1802 Chillicothe • Settlers gathered to write Ohio’s constitution. • Approved by Congress • March 1, 1803 Ohio became the 17th state.
New Constitutions • Edward Tiffin • First governor • Took office in Chillicothe, the state’s first capital • Two other cities served as Ohio’s capital • Zanesville 1810-1812 • Columbus 1816-present
Tecumseh Fights On • The US had gained large areas of land from treaties with Native Americans • How do you think the Native Americans felt about these treaties? Why did they feel this way?
Tecumseh Fights On • Many Native Americans did not believe these treaties were fair. • 2 Shawnee leaders: Tecumseh, Tenskwatawa • They hoped to unite all Native Americans against the settlers. • Tecumseh = good speaker • Urged tribes to form a confederation • Confederation a large group made of smaller groups that work together for the same goals
Prophetstown and Tippecanoe • 1808 Tecumseh and Tenskwatawa built Prophetstown • Village near the Tippecanoe River in what was called the Indiana Territory • Wanted this Prophetstown to be the capital of the confederation tribes
Prophetstown and Tippecanoe • William Henry Harrison, the governor of the Indiana Territory, met with Tecumseh. • Wanted Tecumseh to follow the earlier treaties • Tecumseh reply: “Settlers have no right to take the land from the Indians, because the Indians had it first.” • The men could not agree.
Prophetstown and Tippecanoe • November 1811 Harrison led a group of soldiers toward Prophetstown. • Tecumseh was not there because he was trying to win support from southern tribes. • Harrison’s soldiers fought the Native Americans for two hours Battle of Tippecanoe • Native Americans were defeated and Prophetstown was destroyed.
The War of 1812 • British weapons were found in Prophetstown after the Battle of Tippecanoe. • What did this prove?
The War of 1812 • The British had been helping Native Americans fight settlers • At the same time, British ships were attacking American trading ships • The US declared War on Britain in June 1812.
Battles on Land and Sea • The war lasted for more than 2 years. • May and July 1813 British soldiers and their Native American allies attacked Fort Meigs(near present-day Perrysburg, Ohio) • Both attempts failed • Later that year, Americans, under the command of Oliver Hazard Perry, defeated a British force on Lake Erie • Why would the people who lived in Ohio be pleased with Perry’s success on Lake Erie?
Battles on Land and Sea • Battle of Thames Harrison led soldiers; fought near the Thames river in Canada • Tecumseh killed during battle • 1814 The United States won the war • As a result… • Britain lost its strength in the USA • Tecumseh’s death caused the Native American confederation to fall apart • Battle of Thames
Ohio Grows • By 1815, most Native Americans in Ohio had lost their lands • Sent to reservations land set aside by the government for use by the Native Americans
Ohio Grows • Americans continued migrating to Ohio and other western lands • Migration the movement of people from one place to live in another place • Immigrants (settlers from other countries) also came to Ohio in large numbers • How would you define immigration?
Ohio Grows • Immigration the movement of people from one country to live in another • Most of the immigrants came from Germany and Ireland • Germans settled in Cincinnati, Fort Loramie, Lancaster, and Zoar • Irish settled in Cleveland and central Ohio • Reasons for immigrating: • German Zoar – religious freedom; others to escape hardships • Irish potato famine
Canals, Roads, and Railroads • 1830 a million people lived in Ohio • The state needed better ways to move goods and people • Ohio legislature passed laws to build new canals, roads, and railroads
Canals, Roads, and Railroads • Canal a waterway made by people that connects two bodies of water • Ohio’s canals helped its farmers ship goods to more places • Open by 1845 • The Ohio and Erie Canal and the Miami and Erie Canal made it easier for people to travel and move goods between Lake Erie and the Ohio River • For cities along Lake Erie, the Erie Canal provided a water route to New York City and the Atlantic Ocean. • The Erie Canal
Canals, Roads, and Railroads • Roads were used for travel • Most were rough and muddy • 1815 smoother and more level road started in Cumberland, Maryland • The National Road – Ohio through Illinois
Canals, Roads, and Railroads • 1836 Erie and Kalamazoo Rail Road opened • Connected Ohio to Michigan • By 1850s, railroad tracks crossed the entire state • Many immigrants found work building the new canals, roads, and railroads. • How did new transportation change Ohio? • How would better transportation help farmers?