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World Wars: World War II. Arsenal of Democracy. U.S. Isolationism. After the Great War, Americans wanted to do everything they could to stay out of the next war. Adopted several policies of neutrality and unilateral disarmament. Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937. U.S. Isolationism.

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world wars world war ii

World Wars: World War II

Arsenal of Democracy

u s isolationism
U.S. Isolationism
  • After the Great War, Americans wanted to do everything they could to stay out of the next war.
    • Adopted several policies of neutrality and unilateral disarmament.
      • Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, 1937
u s isolationism1
U.S. Isolationism
  • The U.S. was selling goods to France and Britain.
    • But only on a “cash and carry” basis…to avoid the German U-boat sinking U.S. cargo ships.
u s isolationism2
U.S. Isolationism
  • By WW II beginning in September of 1939—The U.S. Army was almost non-existent with only 227,000.
    • FDR saw what was coming though and increased the military budget to over $500 million as the war began.
u s taking sides
U.S. Taking Sides
  • October 11, 1939—World renowned physicist AlbertEinstein delivers a letter from Leo Szilard to FDR.
    • It tells FDR that the Germans are working on harnessing the atom for a “super bomb”
u s taking sides1
U.S. Taking Sides
  • As a result, FDR creates the top secret program called The Manhattan Engineering District. (Manhattan Project)
    • Was to develop an atomic bomb to be dropped from a plane—before the Germans could develop the same.
u s taking sides2
U.S. Taking Sides
  • Hungarian physicist Edward Teller, German Hans Bethe, American Phillip Morrison, American Glen Seaborg, worked on the Manhattan Project .
u s taking sides3
U.S. Taking Sides
  • As the project moves forward, FDR still toes a cautious line toward war.
    • 1940—FDR calls reserves and guardsmen to active duty and institutes the 1st Peacetime Draft in U.S. history.
      • Troops were only supposed to serve
      • for one year, and in the Western Hemisphere. Hemispheric Defense Zone
u s taking sides4
U.S. Taking Sides
  • November 1940—FDR runs for an unprecedented 3rd term and wins.
    • Told Americans that we would continue to aid Britain, but stay out of the War.
u s taking sides5
U.S. Taking Sides
  • Democrats run FDR, while the Republicans run Wendell Willkie
    • FDR wins in a landslide
u s taking sides6
U.S. Taking Sides
  • December 1940—FDR introduces the Lend-Lease to Britain.
    • We will stay out of the war…. “…the great arsenal of democracy….”
    • FDR sent troops to Iceland, and began escorting British cargo ships across the Atlantic.
u s taking sides7
U.S. Taking Sides
  • July 1941—The U.S. opens Lend-Lease to Russia to the tune of $1 billion.
u s taking sides8
U.S. Taking Sides
  • Lend-Lease routes were carefully guarded to avoid losing U.S. sailors and citizens.
u s taking sides9
U.S. Taking Sides
  • August 1941—FDR and Churchill meet in Newfoundland, here they create the Atlantic Charter.
    • Outline the principals for which the war was being fought
u s taking sides10
U.S. Taking Sides
  • Principals of the Atlantic Charter.
    • Freedom of the Seas A United Nations to keep the peace
    • No country would seek new lands
    • Right of self-determination…choose the form of gov’t.
u s taking sides11
U.S. Taking Sides
  • September 1941—The U.S. Navy is now heavily engaged in an undeclared Atlantic War.
    • Sinking of the Reuben James.
    • By late fall, FDR was running out of option to keep the U.S. out of War.
u s enters ww ii
U.S. Enters WW II
  • The Japanese would solve the dilemma of how to get the U.S. fully into WW II. Japan had been marching steadily toward war since 1932.
u s enters ww ii1
U.S. Enters WW II
  • FDR had ordered an embargo against the Japanese and had their assets in the U.S. frozen.
    • Strategic materials—suchas oil, scrap iron, iron ore
    • Done to punish Japanese for their murder in China and expansionist views.
u s enters ww ii2
U.S. Enters WW II
  • Military leaders in Japan (Tojo) wanted to conquer all of Southwest Asia.
u s enters ww ii3
U.S. Enters WW II
  • From August-November 1941—The U.S. and Japan try to come to some agreement.
    • All the while the Japanese military gets ready for a surprise military attack on the U.S.
u s enters ww ii4
U.S. Enters WW II
  • The Japanese start with a secretive plan to bomb the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor. Then take U.S. interests in the Philippines.
u s enters ww ii5
U.S. Enters WW II
  • At the same time, the U.S. was rearming with $37 billion worth of new military hardware.
    • This increase in production pulled the U.S. economy out the Great Depression.
u s enters ww ii6
U.S. Enters WW II
  • By late 1941, the U.S. was ready for war, although it had not yet started from them.
    • In December of 1941—U.S. military leaders believed the U.S. to be ready by 1943.
      • The U.S. wouldn’t have that long to prepare.
terms names events
Terms, Names, Events
  • Albert Einstein Leo Szilard
  • Manhattan Project Hemispheric Defense Zone
  • Cash and Carry Lend-Lease Act
  • Atlantic Charter Self-determination
  • U.S.S. Reuben James Strategic Materials
  • Tojo Pearl Harbor