Download
slide1 n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Vertebrate Groups PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Vertebrate Groups

Vertebrate Groups

169 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

Vertebrate Groups

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Vertebrate Groups

  2. Vertebrata • More complex animals • Most have a backbone made up of individual bones called vertebrae • From simplest to most complex, the phylum includes: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals

  3. Vertebrate Backbone

  4. Vertebrata • Vertebrates have endoskeletons (internal) • Some vertebrates have skeletons of cartilage(sharks, rays, and skates) • Other vertebrates have skeletons of bone and cartilage(reptiles, birds, & mammals)

  5. Bone & Cartilage in Fetus

  6. Fish lancelet ray damselfish anglerfish

  7. Amphibia salamander toad frog newt

  8. Reptilia Turtle Snake Lizard Alligator

  9. Birds - Aves hummingbird ostrich lovebirds

  10. Mammalia

  11. Body Areas

  12. Surfaces • Dorsal – back or upper surface • Ventral – belly or lower surface • Anterior – head or front end • Posterior – tail or hind end opposite the head • Oral surface (echinoderms) – is where the mouth is located (underside) • Aboral surface (echinoderms) – is opposite the mouth (top side)

  13. Surfaces (Most Animals) DORSAL POSTERIOR ANTERIOR VENTRAL

  14. Surfaces (Echinoderms) ORAL ABORAL mouth

  15. Symmetry

  16. Body Symmetry

  17. Body Symmetry • Symmetry is the arrangement of body parts around a central plane or axis • Asymmetry occurs when the body can’t be divided into similar sections (sponges)

  18. Body Symmetry • Radial symmetry occurs when body parts are arranged around a central point like spokes on a wheel(echinoderms) • Most animals with radial symmetry are sessile(attached) or sedentary(move very little)

  19. Body Symmetry • Bilateral symmetry occurs when animals can be divided into equal halves along a single plane • Organisms will have right and left sides that are mirror images of each other • More complex type of symmetry

  20. Body Symmetry • Animals with bilateral symmetry are usually motile • Animals have an anterior and posterior ends • Show cephalization(concentration of sensory organs on the head or anterior end)

  21. Segmentation

  22. Segmentation • Occurs whenever animal bodies are divided into repeating units or segments • Found in more complex animals • Earthworms show external segmentation • Humans show internal segmentation (backbone) • Segments may fuse (cephalothorax)

  23. Segmentation cephalothorax

  24. Tissues

  25. Tissue Development • Zygote (fertilized egg) undergoes rapid cell divisions called cleavage • Forms a hollow ball of cells called the blastula

  26. Blastula • The blastocoel is the center cavity of the blastula with 1 germ layer (blastoderm)

  27. Tissue Development Archenteron • The blastula INVAGINATES (folds inward at one point) • Called Gastrulation • The opening is called the blastopore • The center is the primitive gut or Archenteron blastopore

  28. Tissue Development • Blastopore may become the mouth (Protostome) or anus (Deuterostome) • Protostomes (mollusks, arthropods, & annelids) • Deuterostomes (echinoderms & vertebrates) • Some animals form a middle germ layer called mesoderm

  29. Embryonic Development

  30. Germ Layers • Form tissues, organs, & systems • NOT present in sponges • Ectoderm (outer) – forms skin, nerves, sense organs • Endoderm (inner) – forms liver and lungs • Mesoderm (middle) – forms muscles & other systems

  31. Body Layers • Sponges have NO tissues or organs, only specialized cells • Cnidarians like jellyfish & coral have only two body layers & one body opening (mouth/anus) into gastrovascular cavity • Cnidarians have outer epidermis & inner gastrodermis with jelly-like mesoglea between the layers

  32. Body Layers • All worms, mollusks, arthropods, echinoderms, and vertebrates have three cell layers • Ectoderm • Endoderm • mesoderm

  33. Embryonic Cleavage

  34. Cleavage • Cleavage – rapid mitosis (cell division) of zygote • RadialCleavage – cells divide parallel or perpendicular to axis to each other

  35. Cleavage • Spiral Cleavage – cellular divisions occur diagonally, in a twisting pattern

  36. Stages of Development

  37. Larval Forms • Animals with Indirect development • Go throughimmature (larval) forms • Larva does NOT resemble adult • Cnidarian (jellyfish, coral, & sea anemone) larva called Planula

  38. Larval Forms • Mollusk (squid & octopus) larva called trochophore • Echinoderm (starfish) larva is called Dipleurula

  39. Metamorphosis • Usually found in arthropods • May be complete or incomplete • Incomplete Metamorphosis: egg nymph adult • Complete Metamorphosis: egg larva pupa adult

  40. Metamorphosis COMPLETE INCOMPLETE

  41. Body Cavities

  42. Coelom - Body Cavity • Internal body cavity fully lined with mesoderm • Body organs suspended in this cavity

  43. Coelom - Body Cavity • Acoelomate animals have solid bodies filled with cells • Acoelomate animals include sponges, cnidarians, & flatworms

  44. Coelom - Body Cavity • Pseudocoelomate animals (roundworms) have a functional body cavity NOT fully lined with mesoderm

  45. Animal Systems

  46. Support Systems • Spongin & spicules (sponges) • Limestone cases (corals) • Exoskeletons of Chitin (arthropods) • Must be shed or moltedto grow • Inner Calcium plates or Test (echinoderms) • Bone/cartilage endoskeleton (vertebrates)