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Contemporary World: International Relations & Organisations. 第 5 單元 : 國際關係理論 : 自由主義 vs. 現實主義 Unit 5: Theories of International Relations: Liberalism vs. Realism Lecturer: Dr. Kao Pei-Shan. 當代世界各項課題 (Topics in Contemporary World) 國際合作 (International Cooperation) vs.

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Contemporary world international relations organisations

Contemporary World: International Relations & Organisations

第5單元: 國際關係理論:


Unit 5: Theories of International Relations: Liberalism vs. Realism

Lecturer: Dr. Kao Pei-Shan

  • 當代世界各項課題

  • (Topics in Contemporary World)

  • 國際合作(International Cooperation)vs.

  • 國際衝突(International Conflicts)

  • 自由貿易(Free Trade Issues)vs.

  • 貿易競爭(Trade Disputes)

  • 相互依賴(Interdependence)vs.

  • 權力平衡(Balance of Power)

  • 絕對增益(Absolute Gains)vs.

  • 相對增益(Relative Gains)

  • 自由主義(Liberalism)vs.現實主義(Realism)

1.國際合作(International Cooperation)vs.

國際衝突(International Conflicts)

Example of International Cooperation (1)

1999 Taiwan Earthquake 2007 Peru Earthquake

Source: Japan International Cooperation Agency,,

“consulted in September, 2007.”

  • Japan International Cooperation Agency

  • (JICA日本國際合作處)

  • The JICA is founded in 1974 as a bridge between the people of Japan and developing countries.

  • It aims to advance international cooperation through the sharing of knowledge and experience and will work to build a more peaceful and prosperous world . Its headquarter is in Tokyo.

  • Current Projects in Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Bolivia, Angola, Chad, Central America, Kenya, Indonesia and Iran, ect.

Example of International Cooperation (2)

  • International Crisis Group(ICG 國際危機小組)

  • *It is an independent, non-profit, non-governmental organisation established in 1995, with some 140 staff members on five continents, working to prevent conflict worldwide.

  • (國際危機小組成立於1995年;為一非營利非政府組織。全球五大洲共有工作人員140名)

  • *It’s headquarter is in Brussels. It currently covers nearly 60 areas of actual or potential conflict across four continents. For instance, in Africa, Asia, Europe, in Latin America.

  • (國際危機小組總部位於比利時布魯塞爾; 工作遍及4大洲61個區域)

Capital from 21 countries(40%); 13charity foundations

(30%)and some personal and enterprises donations(30%)

Cases of International Conflicts →

→ Source: International Crisis Group,, “consulted in September 2007.”

1999 Belgrade Bombing

→ Source: BBC News,, “consulted in September 2007.”

2.自由貿易(Free Trade)vs.

貿易競爭(Trade Conflicts)

Source: The European Free Trade Association (EFTA),, “consulted in September 2007.”

Cases of Trade Conflicts

↑ Costa Ricans protest against Free Trade Agreement negotiations with the USA in San Jose, Costa Rica, Oct 20, 2003.

Source:, “consulted in September 2007.”

Free Trade is not Fair Trade-

March against Free Trade in La Paz, Bolivia, Sep 20, 2005.

Source:, “consulted in September 2007.”

  • 3. Interdependence (相互依賴 )vs.

  • Balance of Power (權力平衡)

  • Robert Keohane and Joseph Nye

  • (哈佛大學政治學教授基歐漢與奈伊提出):

  • Interdependence = ‘mutual dependence’

  • ‘interconnectedness’ = merely interactions which do not have significant costly effects

  • ‘dependence’ = ‘a state of being determined or significantly affected by external forces.’

  • Interdependence ≠ ‘dependence’ nor ‘

  • interconnectedness’

  • Balance of Power(權力平衡)

  • A Doctrine of Equilibrium(均勢原則):

  • 做為一國外交政策時,目標在於使相互競爭的各方勢力處於一穩定相互牽制之局面,不使任何一方過於強大而打破均勢破壞穩定。

  • Example 1: Cross-Strait Relations

  • (台海權力平衡)

  • Example 2: Soviet-US Relations in the Cold-War Period (冷戰時期美國與蘇聯關係):

  • Mutually Assured Destruction (恐怖平衡、互相保證毀滅)

4. 絕對增益 vs. 相對增益

Absolute Gainsvs. Relative Gains

自由主義 vs. 現實主義

Liberalism vs. Realism

*Neoliberalism-derived from Liberalism, scholars such as Robert Keohane, Joseph Nye devoted their work to this approach.


*Neorealism-developed from Realism, Kenneth Waltz is the representative of this approach.


新自由主義 (NeoLiberalism)

*Believe human beings are basically GOOD.


*The important role played by international organisations-international conflicts can be decreased by them.


*Compared with Neorealism, for neoliberals, absolute gains are acceptable.

(相較新現實主義,新自由主義比較能接受國與國之間收益不均的合作行為。 )

*Principle of Reciprocity. (重視互惠原則:即在國際無政府狀態下,當國際規章與法律無法由一個中央政府來執行時,國家可以經由互惠方式來實行時國際規則,並藉由國際規則的實行來促進國家利益。 )


* Human beings and states are rational self-interest;international conflicts can’t be avoided.

理性自利 人民和國家都只是依照其自身的利益行動,並且認為一國只有在對其自身有利的情況下才會與他國合作。國際衝突是無法避免的。

*States are interest-maximiser.


Class discussion 4
Class Discussion 4

Do you support the ideas of LIBERALISM or REALISM? That is to say, do you think human beings or countries are being GOOD or they are just SELF-INTEREST, and INTEREST-MAXIMISERS?

Discuss with your friends and express your views and opinions.