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Grammar Presentation: The Sentence. GradWRITE! Initiative Writing Support Centre Student Development Services. Outline. What is a sentence? Phrases and Clauses Sentences. What is a sentence?. Purpose: To communicate an idea Components: Subject Predicate Punctuation. Subject.

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grammar presentation the sentence
Grammar Presentation:The Sentence
  • GradWRITE! Initiative
  • Writing Support Centre
  • Student Development Services
outline
Outline
  • What is a sentence?
  • Phrases and Clauses
  • Sentences
what is a sentence
What is a sentence?
  • Purpose:
    • To communicate an idea
  • Components:
    • Subject
    • Predicate
    • Punctuation
subject
Subject
  • What the sentence is about
  • At the most basic level, a noun or pronoun
  • Examples:
    • She added methanol to the solution.
    • Methanol was added to the solution.
    • Add methanol to the solution. (Implied ‘You’)
predicate
Predicate
  • Describes what the subject is or does
  • At the most basic level, a verb
  • Examples:
    • She added.
    • She added methanol to the solution.
    • Add methanol to the solution.
objects
Objects
  • Part of the predicate
  • What the subject is acting upon
  • Direct objects and indirect objects
  • Examples:
    • She added methanol to the solution.
punctuation
Punctuation
  • Indicates where to pause in writing
  • Most sentences end in periods
phrases and clauses
Phrases and Clauses
  • Groups of words that are not quite sentences
phrases
Phrases
  • Word clusters without a subject-predicate pair
  • Provide more information than simple subjects and predicates
  • Cannot stand on own
  • Examples:
    • Noun phrase: The guitarist’s performance...
    • Verb phrase: ... seems to be starting.
clauses
Clauses
  • Contain a subject and a predicate
  • Two kinds:
    • Independent clause
    • Dependent clause
independent clause
Independent Clause
  • Can stand alone as a sentence
  • Example:
    • She added methanol to the solution.
dependent clause
Dependent Clause
  • Cannot stand alone as a sentence
  • Needs an independent clause to complete it
  • Acts as a noun, adjective or adverb
  • Example:
    • After adding methanol to the solution, she stirred the beaker.
sentences
Sentences
  • Expresses an idea using a subject and a predicate
  • Four kinds:
    • Simple, Compound, Complex, Compound-Complex
  • Not just about length
simple sentences
Simple sentences
  • One subject-predicate pair
  • Independent clause
  • Example:
    • Methanol was added to the solution.
compound sentences
Compound Sentences
  • Two or more independent clauses in one sentence
  • Two methods
compound sentences16
Compound Sentences
  • Semi-colon
  • Example:
    • Methanol was added methanol to the solution; she stirred the beaker.
    • Methanol was added to the solution; this caused a reaction.
    • Methanol was added to the solution; subsequently, a reaction occured.
compound sentences17
Compound Sentences
  • Co-ordinating conjunctions
  • FANBOYS: For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So
  • Example:
    • Methanol was added to the solution, and this caused a reaction.
complex sentences
Complex Sentences
  • 1 independent clause and 1+ dependent clauses
  • Example:
    • After adding methanol to the solution, the beaker was stirred.
    • Methanol was added to the solution, while the beaker was stirred.
compound complex sentences
Compound-Complex Sentences
  • 2+ independent clauses and 1+ dependent clauses
  • Example:
    • While methanol is added to the solution, the beaker is stirred, and the colour will change.
sentence variety
Sentence Variety
  • Think about the effect you want
  • Short simple sentences attract attention
  • Compound sentences invite comparison
  • Compound-complex sentences give lots of information
resources
Resources
  • Sin and Syntax by Constance Hale
  • APA Style Guide
  • University of Ottawa’s HyperGrammar
    • www.uottawa.ca/academic/arts/writcent/hypergrammar/grammar.html
  • Purdue University’s Online Writing Lab
    • www.owl.english.purdue.edu
    • Search for Grammar and ESL resources