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Scientific Method Foldable. Overview: QPOE 2. The scientific method is not always an ordered, sequential process. Question. The main idea of the investigation, worded as a question. The question must be doable/testable. Is it ethical? Are the materials available? Is there enough time?

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Scientific Method Foldable


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overview qpoe 2
Overview: QPOE2
  • The scientific method is not always an ordered, sequential process.
question
Question
  • The main idea of the investigation, worded as a question.
  • The question must be doable/testable.
    • Is it ethical?
    • Are the materials available?
    • Is there enough time?
    • Can observations/data be collected?
    • Is there a dependent and independent variable?
knowledge probe
Knowledge Probe
  • Identify and activate prior knowledge on the subject that will help to make a prediction and plan the investigation.
  • Also may include instruction on the subject in order to make a prediction and plan the investigation.
prediction hypothesis
Prediction (Hypothesis)
  • The expected outcome of the investigation, based on prior knowledge.
  • A hypothesis is a type of prediction that includes the relationship between the independent and dependent variables.
  • Format:
    • Prediction:
      • If _________________________ then ____________________________.
    • Reasoning:
      • Uses prior knowledge to explain why you are making this prediction.
investigation plan
Investigation Plan
  • The steps used to conduct the investigation.
  • Must include three parts:
    • Variables
    • Materials List
    • Procedure
investigation plan variables
Investigation Plan: Variables
  • The variables section of the investigation plan will include the independent variable, dependent variables and variables to be controlled (constants).
    • Independent Variable
      • This is the variable the scientist changes
    • Dependent Variable
      • This is the variable the scientist observes (the data that is collected)
    • Controlled Variables
      • All variables except for the independent variable should be kept constant.
variables examples
Variables Examples
  • Paper airplane investigation
    • Independent Variable: Type of paper
    • Dependent Variable: Flight time
    • Controlled Variables: Size of paper, paper airplane design, force at which it is thrown, height at which it is thrown, timer, wind speed, size of testing area, etc.
  • Fertilizer Investigation
    • Independent Variable: Brand or type of fertilizer
    • Dependent Variable: Height of plant
    • Controlled Variables: Type of soil, amount of soil, type of pot, size of pot, type of plant, number of seeds, seed depth when planted, temperature, sunlight, wind speed, amount of water, type of water, time in between watering, amount of fertilizer added, time in between fertilizing, etc.
investigation plan materials and procedure
Investigation Plan: Materials and Procedure
  • Materials List: Tells the tools and materials to be used.
  • Procedure: A numbered list of steps used to conduct the investigation.
  • Procedure Notes:
    • Should be a fair test that is designed to answer the question.
    • Needs to be complete, detailed, logical and concise.
    • May include drawings or diagrams.
    • Explains what data to gather, how to collect it and how many trials to conduct.
    • Includes description of what variables should be kept constant and how.
    • Tells how to reduce possible sources of error.
observation
Observation

The process of gathering information from the investigation in an organized manner.

Quantitative Observations: Information gathered that can be measured and recorded as a number.

Examples: number of leaves, change in mass, temperature, height, etc.

Should be recorded in a data table.

Must be labeled with units

  • Qualitative Observations:Information gathered by using the five senses.
    • Examples: color, shape, texture, odor
    • May be recorded by using words, sketches, drawings, video, photographs and audio.
data analysis
Data Analysis
  • The process of making sense of the data collected.
    • Summarize and interpret qualitative observations.
    • Statistical analysis of quantitative data (mean, median, mode, range).
    • Construct appropriate graphs and charts.
explanation
Explanation
  • Claim: The researcher’s answer to the question investigated.
  • Evidence: Scientific data selected to support the claim.
  • Reasoning: The argument used to determine why the selected data should count as evidence. A strong argument should include scientific concepts, principles or theories and well as reasons why the investigation was a fair test.
evaluation
Evaluation
  • The evaluation is where the researcher assesses the quality of the investigation.
  • The evaluation should answer the following questions:
    • What are the sources of error?
    • What would you do differently next time?
    • How confident are you in your results?
    • What could be alternative explanations for my results?
    • What surprised you?
    • What would your prediction be if you conducted this investigation again?
    • What question would you like to ask next?
application
Application
  • Through the application process, scientists practice the skills of refining, extending and demonstrating their knowledge.
  • How do you use what you have learned?
  • Possibilities:
    • Generate and test a related question
    • Design and construct a model
    • Present results to others