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Cluster Lenses & High Redshift Clusters (MACS) A Status Report. Jean-Paul KNEIB Observatoire Astronomique Marseille Provence , Marseille, France

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cluster lenses high redshift clusters macs a status report

Cluster Lenses & High Redshift Clusters (MACS)A Status Report

Jean-Paul KNEIB

Observatoire Astronomique Marseille Provence, Marseille, France

H. Ebeling, G. Smith, A. Gal-Yam, I. Smail, A. Edge, J. Greene, P. Hudelot, S. Bardeau, G. Soucail, P. Marshall, E. Egami, G. Covone, E.Jullo and many others

  • Lensing in Clusters
  • Mass Distribution in Cluster:

strong & weak lensing at low-z

  • MACS Clusters (0.3<z<0.8):
    • ACS deep survey
    • MACS Snapshot, RXJ0152
    • (SN search)
  • Future prospects

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

theory lens diagram
Theory: Lens Diagram



Z_arc=0.725 (Soucail et al 1988)

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

science with cluster lenses
Science with Cluster Lenses
  • Study the mass distribution of cluster => cosmology?
  • Study the distant lensed Universe
  • Direct constrain on cosmological parameters

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

theory lens mapping
Theory: Lens Mapping


The lensing equation is a mapping from image plane to source plane:

q - b = Dls/Ds. a = Dls/Ds df/dq

For a point mass, the deflection angle is: a = 4GM/bc2

(b is the impact parameter) -> typically 10” for a 1014 Solar mass



Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

cluster lenses
Cluster Lenses
  • Insensitive to:
  • Nature of matter
  • Physical state of matter
  • Cleanest available probe of Dark Matter

Strong Lensing in the core,

Weak lensing on large scale

Most massive clusters

Einstein radius: 10-45”

Ned Wrigth, UCLA

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

mass distribution in cluster cores
Mass distribution in cluster cores

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

cluster lens mass reconstruction
Cluster Lens: Mass Reconstruction
  • Parameterized mass distribution, involving various multiple image system (works better, less free parameters)
  • Need to include galaxy scale mass components
    • using scaling relations (dominate locally the mass)

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

strong and weak lensing
Strong and Weak Lensing

Absolute central mass

relative total mass and slope

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

an example from space cl0024 1654 hst wide field sparse mosaic
An Example from space:Cl0024+1654 HST wide field sparse mosaic
  • 76 orbits, 38 pointings
  • Probe regions up to ~5Mpc
  • Aim: learn cluster physics of clusters by comparing with other mass estimates: X-ray, dynamics

(Treu et al 2003, Kneib et al 2003)

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

0024 shear profile
0024: Shear Profile

SIS fitting strong lensing data

  • Extrapolate strong lensing models at large scale by exploring various cluster mass profile.
  • Rule out SIS model
  • NFW (with large c~20) or Power-law models give comparatively good model.

NFW fitting strong

And weak lesning

~3 Mpc

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

cl0024 mass vs light

Mass traces Light !!!

Cl0024: Mass vs. Light
  • NFW and Power-Law model fit the strong+weak lensing
  • But high concentration compared to expectations
  • (similar results on other clusters: A1689 …)
  • SIS does not fit the strong+weak lensing
  • M/L is constant with radius with M/LK~40

Red sequence selection

Light profile

NFW model

Broader sequence selection

SIS model fitting

weak lensing

Kneib et al 2003

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

questions for cluster physics
Questions for Cluster Physics
  • What are the total mass and structural properties of massive clusters?
  • How are the mass and structure of clusters related to the global thermodynamics (Tx, Lx)?
  • How do cluster substructure and thermodynamics evolve with redshift?
  • Implications of cluster mass and substructure for cluster Cosmology?

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

multi wavelength epoch study
Multi-wavelength/epoch study




  • z=0.21+/-0.04
  • Lx>8x1044erg/s






A963 Ellis et al. 1991



A2218 Kneib et al. 1996

A2219 Smail et al. 1995

  • Study of 10 clusters at z~0.2
    • HST, WFPC2, F702W, 75ksec
    • Chandra, ACIS-I(S), 4-40ksec
    • UKIRT, UFTI, 9ksec
    • CFHT12k, BRI, weak shear

X-ray Luminosity





Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

example abell 68 z 0 25

Triply-imaged “ERO”



Smith et al 2001,2003,2005

Example:Abell 68 (z=0.25)

Data and constraints

  • ID multiple image systems (HST)
  • Spectroscopic redshifts (Keck+)
  • Weak lensing constraints (HST)


  • Cluster mass (R<500kpc)
  • Dark matter morphology

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

quantitative structural classification

Atypical Unrelaxed

Quantitative structural classification

Typical Unrelaxed


Smith et al., 2005



Ndm1 2 1

Mcen/Mtot0.97±0.01 0.77±0.01 0.96±0.01

Ttot/Tann0.8±0.1 1.0±0.1 1.0±0.2

Δr (arcsec) <1 10±2 22±1



  • 70% of X-ray luminous cluster cores at z=0.2 are dynamically immature and strongly heterogeneous

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

m t relation or m t scatter plot

Structural segregation





M-T relation or M-T scatter plot?

Smith et al., 2005

Finoguenov et al., 2001

  • Unrelaxed clusters are 40% hotter than relaxed clusters (2.5σ)
  • Consistent with hydro simulations of cluster-cluster mergers

(Ricker & Sarazin 2001, Randall et al. 2003)

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

weak lensing shear profile
weak lensing shear profile

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

weak lensing scatter plots


weak lensing scatter plots…

(~150 z/cluster)



Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

better agreement with weak lensing1
Offset between dynamics and mass: sign of merger due to optical selection ? Or the fact that those systems are still young?

A big scatter between Tx and Mass: we can probably do better (including strong lensing) but … limited by cluster substructure

Need better data and statistics …

ie. go from sample of 10s to sample of 100s

Better agreement with weak lensing?

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

the massive cluster survey macs
The MAssive Cluster Survey (MACS)
  • MACS is covering a very wide area and thus is able to discover the most x-ray luminous clusters unlike other surveys.
  • Most massive clusters should be strong lenses
  • ~120 z>0.3 MACS clusters to be observed with Chandra & ACS SNAP
  • 10 MACS cluster have been observed with HST/ACS

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

macs clusters at 0 5 z 0 6
10 clusters at z~0.55

HST/ACS imaging

F555W, F814W


Keck/LRIS + VLT/FORS spectroscopy (arcs and cluster galaxies)

Blue and Red spectroscopy

SUBARU/Suprime imaging

Weak lensing and galaxy population




X-ray Luminosity





MACS clusters at 0.5<z<0.6

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters


MACS 1149



Ringberg, Hi-z clusters


MACS 0717


Ly- blob

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters


MACS 0257


Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

macs hst weak lensing
MACS/HST weak lensing

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

macs hst weak lensing1

Marshall et al 2006

Simulation data

MACS/HST weak lensing

Cluster mass reconstruction method using (NFW) blobs that can combine strong+weak lensing data: using

MCMC techniques

To cope with complex

Shape seen at high-z

Atomic Inference

Classical 2D reconstruction

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

4mpc filament in macsj0717 5 3745 ebeling et al go 10420 cycle 14
4Mpc filament in MACSJ0717.5+3745Ebeling et al (GO: 10420, cycle 14)

X-ray+Gal density

Lensing Subaru+Gal density+ ACS survey

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

4mpc filament in macsj0717 5 3745 ebeling barrett donovan 2004
4Mpc filament in MACSJ0717.5+3745Ebeling, Barrett, Donovan, 2004

Galaxies with Spectra

Redshift distribution

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

does cluster substructure evolve





Does cluster substructure evolve?
  • Current status of MACS strong lensing analysis
    • Candidate gravitational multiple images identified
    • [Ground-based spectroscopy of arcs <~50% complete]
  • Broad brush demographics:-


Strong lensing clusters 8/10 10/10

Unrelaxed clusters 4/10 9/10

Candidate unrelaxed clusters 3/10 0/10

Relaxed cool core clusters 2/10 1/10

Relaxed non cool core clusters 1/10 0/10

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

macs snapshot acs ebeling et al go 10491 cycle 14
MACS Snapshot ACSEbeling et al (GO: 10491, cycle 14)
  • List of 124 MACS clusters to be observed with HST/ACS in SNAP mode in F814W
  • Aim at finding effective lensing clusters and strongly distorted arcs (statistics and magnified sources)
  • 5 clusters already observed

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters

rxj0152 29 a massive cluster at z 0 83

RXJ0152-29 a massive cluster at z~0.83


Field of view

X-ray luminous cluster at z=0.83

At least 8 multiple image systems, one at z=3.9 (Umetsu et al 2005)=> high ellipticity for DM, indicative of a merger.

Ideal probe for VIMOS/IFU

Potential interest for cosmology (Golse et al 2002)

lensing for cluster physics
Lensing for Cluster Physics
  • Lensing is probing mass relatively easily, measuring substructure gets more difficult at higher z, but is clearly seen!
  • Scattered relation between Mass and X-ray - depends on physical state and substructure (merger/relaxed)
  • Higher substructures at higher redshift (lots of lensing till z~0.8 in massive systems)?
  • Cosmology with cluster is likely to be hard - at least with current cluster sample size (10s) need much larger sample, but will learn some physics.

Ringberg, Hi-z clusters