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CELLS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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CELLS. Building Blocks of Life. Every living thing is made of cells Cells complete different functions in different parts of organisms. Muscle cells help us move Fat cells store energy. Form and Function. Cells have different sizes, shapes and parts.

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cells

CELLS

Building Blocks of Life

slide2
Every living thing is made of cells
  • Cells complete different functions in different parts of organisms.
    • Muscle cells help us move
    • Fat cells store energy
form and function
Form and Function
  • Cells have different sizes, shapes and parts.
  • Their appearance will reflect their function.
cells shapes
Cells Shapes
  • Plant cells are usually rectangular because of their thick cell wall.
  • Animal cells are usually rounded because they lack cell walls.
  • Cell Shape Pictures
the two cell types
The Two Cell Types
  • Prokaryotic
    • Simple cells no complex organelles
    • Small cells average size 1 micrometer
    • Bacteria only example
    • Oldest known form of life
the two cell types1
The Two Cell Types
  • Eukaryotic:
  • Complex cells many organelles
  • Large cells average 20 micrometers
  • Plants, animals, fungi, protists,
  • Evolved much later than prokaryotic
  • cells
cell parts
Cell Parts
  • Cell Membrane:
  • Thin covering on outside of the cell.
  • Controls movement of materials into & out of the cell.
cell wall
Cell Wall
  • Thick, strong covering on the outside of plant cells only.
  • Provides protection & support for the plant.
  • Plan Cell Diagram
slide9
Cytoplasm
    • Jelly-like material in the cell
    • Contains the organelles.
  • Organelle
    • (small organ) A structure in the cytoplasm that performs a specific function.
organelles
Organelles
  • Nucleus:
    • The control center of the cell.
    • Contains the cell’s genetic material in the DNA molecule
slide11
Nucleolus
    • Found inside nucleus
    • Produces ribosome
  • Chromosomes
    • Found inside nucleus
    • Contain DNA
    • Holds the cells ‘blue prints”
    • Contain the cells genetic information
slide12
Ribosomes
  • The cell’s protein factory
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum:
  • Series of membranes used to transport materials through the cytoplasm.
slide13
Mitochondria
  • Hot dog shape with many folds
  • organelle where sugar is converted to usable energy.
  • Cells can have many mitochondria
chloroplasts
Chloroplasts
  • Site of photosyntheisis
  • Captures sun’s energy to make food
  • Green, oval organelle
  • Contains chlorophyll
  • Makes leaves green
photosynthesis
Photosynthesis

6CO2 +6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2

chromoplasts
CHROMOPLASTS
  • Same function as chloroplasts
  • They use different wavelengths of light.
  • Contain the bright pigments that give Fall leaves their colors
leucoplasts
LEUCOPLASTS
  • Used in starch storage:
  • We will see them in potato cells.
golgi body
Golgi Body
  • Flat sacs, look like stack of records
  • Used to wrap materials so that they can easily be transported out of the cell
  • Makes lysosomes
diffusion
Diffusion
  • The gradual spreading of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of lesser concentration.
  • Examples
  • Smoke spreading in air
  • Salt spreading in water
  • Water spreading through a paper towel
osmosis
Osmosis
  • The diffusion of water into or out of cells
  • Examples
    • Cells placed in salt water shrink
    • Cells placed in fresh water grow
chromatography
CHROMATOGRAPHY
  • Chromatography: A technique used to separate materials based on differing chemical or physical properties.
  • Paper Chromatography: The type of chromatography we used to separate dyes based on their solubility in water.
  • Solubility: Describes how easily one substance dissolves in another.
chromatography1
CHROMATOGRAPHY
  • The dye with the greatest solubility will travel the furthest up the filter paper.
  • The dye with the least solubility will travel the shortest distance up the filter paper.
chromatography2
CHROMATOGRAPHY
  • Other types of chromatography are used to separate other materials. For example gel chromatography is used to separate DNA molecules.
slide26

Dye with greatest solubility

Dye with least solubility

Original line with mixed up colors.