Style in English and Arabic. Prof. Walid M. Amer. Style in English and Arabic. Style ! I have no style, I merely wait till the mud settles . Goldwin 1.1 Why Style is Important
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Prof. Walid M. Amer
Style! I have no style, I merely wait till the mud settles. Goldwin
1.1 Why Style is Important
researchers in natural language understanding have recognized the importance of style, a subtle but significant aspect of language
le is influenced by linguistic choices on all levels: lexical, syntactic, and semantic. For example, consider the differences in meaning between the following two sentences.
1. Lexical Style
The first example is a simple and ordinary sentence. The second example adds modifiers to the first, but still leaves us with an ordinary sentence.
Some of the difference between the two styles can be summarized as in the following:
3.2.1 Arabic style tends to scatter the similar thoughts while English style tends to gather them e.g:
- The Government and people of Palestine.
حكومة فلسطين وشعبها.
3.2.2 In Arabic, the heavy element comes first. By contrast, English style puts it later. In a sentence like:
3.2.3 Arabic style uses the conjunction "و " or "أو" before each element of the sentence, English style on the other hand doesn’t use this conjunction except before the final element.
One of the features of English sentence is that it develops rapidly. He who reads for Chaucer may find difficulties in understanding the language used by Dickens for example.
Arabic, on the other hand, does not have the same rate in accepting new vocabulary. This matter may be due to the fact that Arabic has huge number of words which allows it to convey any meaning or express any situation, relaxably.
1. The multi-use of complex sentences. English has one complex sentence with two or more simple sentences.
Ex: He visited Egypt so that he might see the pyramids and enjoy them.
2. English prefers to delay the predicate to the end of the sentence just for the purpose of evocation.
- They traveled to London; the purpose of their traveling was studying medicine.
- The building was designed by a famous designer who was killed in an accident.
4. English sentence begins with a subject followed by finite verb. Since English word order is SVO while standard Arabic word order is VSO.
- Ali studies English.
5.The position of English word in the sentence identifies or shows its syntactic function, the subject comes first, then the verb followed by the complement, however in Arabic sentence, the function of the word is identified by inflections come at the end of the words “overt” "case assignment nominative, accusative and genitive".
- Sami cleaned his room, which was untidy.
6. In English three or more adjectives may describe one thing, also one verb may be described by two or more adverbs.
(a) The smart, handsome, polite student got the higher marks.
(b) He runs so quickly and urgently.
- He arrived at the USA and visited the UN building.
8. Subject in English is always overt since English only accepts SVO word order.
- Sara cooks the meal.
لعب الولد الكرة واستمتع بوقته، ثم عاد لمنزله وأخذ يطالع دروسه
"The boy played football, enjoyed his time, returned home and began to revise his lessons".
Unlike English, Arabic tends to use the predicate directly after the subject. سافر علي للدراسة " Ali traveled to study"
Arabic is pro-drop language, therefore the subject can be dropped and referred to syntactically as small pro, as in:
He went to school. "ذهب إلى المدرسة"