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Applications of eddy covariance measurements, Part 1: Lecture on Analyzing and Interpreting CO 2 Flux Measurements. Dennis Baldocchi ESPM/Ecosystem Science Div. University of California, Berkeley. CarboEurope Summer Course, 2006 Namur, Belgium. Outline. Philosophy/Background Processing

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Applications of eddy covariance measurements, Part 1:Lecture on Analyzing and Interpreting CO2 Flux Measurements

Dennis Baldocchi

ESPM/Ecosystem Science Div.

University of California, Berkeley

CarboEurope Summer Course, 2006

Namur, Belgium

  • Philosophy/Background
  • Processing
  • Time Series Analysis
    • Diurnal
    • Seasonal
    • Interannual
  • Flux Partitioning
    • Canopy photosynthesis
    • Ecosystem Respiration
  • Processes
    • Photosynthesis
      • f(T,PAR, LAI, soil moisture)
    • Respiration
      • f(photosynthesis, soil C &N, T, soil moisture, growth)
    • Functional Type
    • Disturbance
  • Space
    • Cross-Site Analyzes
philosophy background
  • Philosophy
    • What, How, Why, Will be?
  • BioPhysical Processes
    • Meteorology/Microclimate
      • Light, temperature, wind, humidity, pressure
    • Vegetation
      • Structure (height, leaf area index, leaf size)
      • Physiology (photosynthetic capacity, stomatal conductance)
    • Soil
      • Roots
      • Microbes
      • Abiotic conditions (soil moisture, temperature, chemistry, texture)
  • Spatial-Temporal Variability
    • Spatial
      • Vertical (canopy) and Horizontal (footprint, landscape, functional type, disturbance)
    • Temporal
      • Dynamics
      • Diurnal
      • Seasonal
      • Inter-annual
What the Atmosphere Sees

Schulze, 2006 Biogeosciences

Time Series: Spectral Analysis

Baldocchi et al., 2001 AgForMet

Time Series: Interannual Variability

Data of Wofsy, Munger, Goulden, Harvard Univ

  • Canopy Photosynthesis
    • Light
    • Temperature
    • Soil Moisture
    • Functional Type
  • Ecosystem Respiration
    • Temperature
    • Soil Moisture
    • Photosynthesis

NEE and Environmental Drivers

From E. Falge

pulses switches and lags are important too
Pulses, Switches and Lags are Important too!
  • They are Features of Complex Dynamical Systems
  • Biosphere is a Complex Dynamical System
    • Constituent Processes are Non-linear and Experience Non-Gaussian Forcing
    • Possess Scale-Emergent Properties
    • Experiences Variability Across a Spectrum of Time and Space Scales
    • Solutions are sensitive to initial conditions
    • Solutions are path dependent
    • Chaos or Self-Organization can Arise
CO2 uptake-Light Response Curve: Crops

Linear Function and High r2 (~0.90)

CO2 uptake-Light Response Curve: Forest

Function is Non-Linear and Low r2 (~0.50)

co 2 flux vs sunlight at different lai
CO2 flux vs Sunlight at different LAI

Xu and Baldocchi, 2003, AgForMet

Ac vs Qp: Daily Sums Become Linear!?

Leuning et al. 1995, PCE

Role of Averaging Period:

Hourly vs Daily

Sims et al. AgForMet, 2005

Role of Averaging Period:

Snap Shot vs Daily Integral

Sims et al 2005, AgForMet

co 2 flux and diffuse radiation
CO2 Flux and Diffuse Radiation

Niyogi et al., GRL 2004

Linking Water and Carbon:

Potential to assess Gc with Remote Sensing

Xu + DDB

Land Surface Water Index (LSWI) plotted with daily NEE for 2004/2005

Land Surface Water Index LSWI = (ρ860 - ρ1640)/(ρ860 + ρ1640)


PRI = (r531 - r570) / (r531 + r570)

Falk, Baldocchi, Ma

ecosystem respiration
Ecosystem Respiration

Is Q10 Conservative?

Xu + Baldocchi, AgForMet 2003

environmental controls on respiration
Environmental Controls on Respiration

Xu + Baldocchi, AgForMet 2003

rains pulse do not have equal impacts
Rains Pulse do not have Equal Impacts

Xu, Baldocchi Agri For Meteorol , 2004

respiration and photosynthesis
Respiration and Photosynthesis

Tonzi Open areas

Tang, Baldocchi, Xu, Global Change Biology, 2005

lags and leads in ps and resp diurnal
Lags and Leads in Ps and Resp: Diurnal

Tang et al, Global Change Biology 2005.

What is Wrong with this Picture?

Valentini et al., 2000, Nature

Temperature Acclimation

Falge et al; Baldocchi et al.

respiration temperature and acclimation
Respiration: Temperature and acclimation

Analyst: Enquist et al. 2003, Nature

Soil Temperature:

An Objective Indicator of Phenology??

Data of Pilegaard et al.

Soil Temperature:

An Objective Measure of Phenology, part 2

Data of: ddb, Wofsy, Pilegaard, Curtis, Black, Fuentes, Valentini, Knohl, Yamamoto. Granier, Schmid

Baldocchi et al. Int J. Biomet, in press