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The Science and Ethics of Reproductive Cloning: Introduction to the Science California Science Center April 15, 2006 PowerPoint Presentation
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The Science and Ethics of Reproductive Cloning: Introduction to the Science California Science Center April 15, 2006

The Science and Ethics of Reproductive Cloning: Introduction to the Science California Science Center April 15, 2006

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The Science and Ethics of Reproductive Cloning: Introduction to the Science California Science Center April 15, 2006

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  1. The Science and Ethics of Reproductive Cloning:Introduction to the ScienceCalifornia Science CenterApril 15, 2006 Edward RB McCabe, MD, PhD Physician-in-Chief, Mattel Children’s Hospital at UCLA Co-Director, UCLA Center for Society and Genetics www.socgen.ucla.edu

  2. Science of Reproductive Cloning • What is a clone? • How is a clone created? • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning? • Why clone animals and humans? • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed? • Who is doing this research and where?

  3. Science of Reproductive Cloning • What is a clone? • How is a clone created? • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning? • Why clone animals and humans? • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed? • Who is doing this research and where?

  4. Clone • A copy of • Gene • Animal • A clone of an animal • An exact genetic copy of the original • Equivalent to an identical twin

  5. Science of Reproductive Cloning • What is a clone? • How is a clone created? • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning? • Why clone animals and humans? • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed? • Who is doing this research and where?

  6. Comparing Sexual Reproduction and Cloning

  7. Cloning Dolly

  8. Science of Reproductive Cloning • What is a clone? • How is a clone created? • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning? • Why clone animals and humans? • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed? • Who is doing this research and where?

  9. Cloning • Therapeutic • To generate stem cells for use in Regenerative Medicine • Reproductive • To generate clonal organism(s) from an original individual

  10. Embryonic Stem Cells • Generated from • inner cell mass (ICM) • of embryo • Pluripotent or totipotent – • any cell can give rise to a • complete organism • ES cells in culture growing • on spindle-shaped fibroblast • feeder layer • Will differentiate into embryoid • bodies in culture

  11. Science of Reproductive Cloning • What is a clone? • How is a clone created? • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning? • Why clone animals and humans? • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed? • Who is doing this research and where?

  12. Why Clone Animals? • To generate protein therapeutics that are highly and reproducibly expressed from animal to animal • To be used to develop organs for transplantation into humans • To save endangered species from distinction • To reproduce desirable characteristics, such as speed in a race horse • To permit infertile animals with desirable features to reproduce

  13. Funny Cide 2003 Kentucky Derby Taz Champion Racing Mule Preakness Idaho Gem Cloned from Fetal Sib of Taz

  14. Why Clone Humans? • To obtain human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) for Regenerative Medicine • To generate an identical twin of an existing or previously existing individual • To engineer the clone of an individual with a genetic disorder such that the clone would be identical except for the “repaired” gene

  15. Why Are Cloning and Embryonic Stem Cells Linked? • ES cells could be derived from donated, or “abandoned” or “orphaned” embryos • For transplantation of immunologically identical tissue • ES cells could be derived using SCNT from the individual who would receive the ES cell-derived tissue

  16. Culture Conditions Induce Differentiation

  17. Science of Reproductive Cloning • What is a clone? • How is a clone created? • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning? • Why clone animals and humans? • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed? • Who is doing this research and where?

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  19. Observations in Cloned Animals • Extremely low reproductive efficiency • High late fetal losses • Placental abnormalities • Increased birth size • Large offspring syndrome • Risk to mother and offspring • High early neonatal death rates • Respiratory deaths

  20. Science of Reproductive Cloning • What is a clone? • How is a clone created? • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning? • Why clone animals and humans? • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed? • Who is doing this research and where?

  21. Hwang: Fraudulently Claimed to Derive hES Cells from Cloned Human Embryos

  22. hESC PoliciesHoffman, University of Minnesota

  23. Stem Cell Research CentersHoffman, University of Minnesota

  24. Summary • What is a clone? • How is a clone created? • What is the difference between therapeutic and reproductive cloning? • Why clone animals and humans? • What types of animals have been cloned and what have we observed? • Who is doing this research and where?