chapter 18 cold war conflicts section 2 origins of the cold war l.
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Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts Section 2: Origins of the Cold War. Standards. 11.4.6, 11.8.5, & 11.9.3 11.4.6- Trace the declining role of Great Britain and the expanding role of the United States in world affairs after World War II.

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standards
Standards
  • 11.4.6, 11.8.5, & 11.9.3
    • 11.4.6- Trace the declining role of Great Britain and the expanding role of the United States in world affairs after World War II.
    • 11.8.5- Describe the increased powers of the presidency in response to the Cold War.
    • 11.9.3- Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including the following:
      • The Truman Doctrine
      • The Korean War
objectives
Objectives
  • Following lecture and reading of this section, students will be able to:
    • Explain how Communists came to power in China and how the United States reacted.
    • Summarize the events of the Korean War.
    • Explain the conflict between President Truman and General MacArthur.
review
Review
  • Following WWII, tensions between the former allies (US and USSR) arise again
    • Economic and Political differences
      • US- Democratic and Capitalist
        • Freedom of movement and ownership
      • USSR- Dictatorship and Communist
        • Military rule, no private ownership
  • The plans of each country for post WWII world were very different
  • The US focus was on Containing Communism
    • Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan
  • USSR focused on keeping Germany weak
the cold war heats up
The Cold War Heats Up
  • After World War II
    • China became a communist nation
      • Communists defeated Nationalist (US friendly) forces to take over the nation
        • The Communists were led by Mao Zedong
        • The Nationalists were led by Chiang Kai-shek
    • Korea is split into two
      • Communist north
      • Democratic south
china becomes a communist country
China Becomes a Communist Country
  • Nationalists Versus Communists
    • Chinese Communists battle nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek
    • U.S. supports Chiang, but his government is inefficient and corrupt
    • Communists, led by Mao Zedong, work to get peasant support
    • Peasants flock to Red (Communist) Army
      • By 1945, communists control north China
renewed civil war
Renewed Civil War
  • After WWII, the Japanese who had tried to control China during WWII had been eliminated
    • The existing government (Nationalists) now faced Communist opposition
      • 1944-47, U.S. sends military aid to Nationalists to oppose communist rebellion
    • 1949, Nationalists flee to island of Taiwan
      • Containment failed!
    • Communists established People’s Republic of China in mainland
america reacts to communist takeover
America Reacts to Communist Takeover
  • U.S. does not recognize Communist Chinese government
  • U.S. public stunned by Communist takeover
    • Conservatives blame Truman for not sending enough aid
    • Some begin to question Truman’s and other democrat’s toughness on Communist expansion
the korean war
The Korean War
  • A Divided Country
    • Since 1910 Japan had controlled Korea
      • When the Japanese had been defeated in WWII they had to give up all land outside of Japan
    • 38th parallel (38° N latitude) divides Japanese surrender in Korea
      • Japanese troops north of 38th parallel surrendered to U.S.S.R.
      • Japanese troops south of 38th parallel surrendered to U.S.
    • North and South Korea were formed
surrender sparks differences
Surrender Sparks Differences
  • The result of the surrender:
    • U.S.S.R and U.S. now have the ability to create influence in the area in which soldiers surrendered to them
      • Since Japanese rule is done there is no government
        • Japanese troops north of 38th parallel surrendered to U.S.S.R.
          • Korea, north of the 38th parallel becomes Communist
        • Japanese troops south of 38th parallel surrendered to U.S.
          • Korea, south of the 38th parallel becomes Democratic
the war begins
The War Begins
  • North Korea Attacked South Korea
    • 1950, North Korea invaded South, began Korean War
    • South Korea called on UN to help stop invasion; Security Council approves
  • UN assigned MacArthur to lead forces against North Koreans
    • 500K South Korean forces
    • 500K U.S. forces
the united states fights in korea
The United States Fights in Korea
  • MacArthur’s Counterattack
    • North Korea drove south, captured Seoul
    • UN, South Korean troops forced into small defensive zone
      • Pusan Peninsula
  • MacArthur attacked North Koreans from two sides and pushed into North Korea
    • Invasion came behind North Korean advance and forced many North Koreans to surrender
      • Inchon
the chinese enter the fight
The Chinese Enter the Fight
  • The UN troops made a great recovery
    • Gaining the upper hand, UN troops push passed the 38th parallel and north very near the North Korean-Chinese border
      • North Korea could have fallen
      • China is Communist and does not want a democratic nation on their border
  • China sent troops in to help North Korea
    • Chinese troops pushed south; recaptured Seoul
  • Fighting continued for 2 more years
mcarthur and truman clash
McArthur and Truman Clash
  • MacArthur Recommends Attacking China
    • MacArthur calls for war with China; Truman rejects request
      • Soviet Union, China have mutual assistance pact
        • Truman knew that if we attacked China the U.S.S.R. would attack the U.S.
  • MacArthur continues to push for invasion of China
    • Truman eventually fired him
      • Public outraged over hero’s dismissal
        • Congressional investigation concluded Truman right
settling for stalemate
Settling for Stalemate
  • UN, South Korea retake Seoul, advance north, back to 38th parallel
    • Once back at the 38th parallel, the fight stalls
      • 1951, Soviet Union suggests cease-fire
      • 1953 an armistice is signed
        • Korea still divided
        • A demilitarized zone established between North and South Korea
  • Lack of success, high human, financial costs help elect Eisenhower
ground control changes in korean war
Ground Control Changes in Korean War
  • June 1950
    • North Korea invades South Korea
  • September 1950
    • North Koreans push UN and South Korean forces to Pusan
  • Sept. – Oct. 1950
    • UN troops recapture 38th parallel and move toward China
  • Nov. 1950 to Jan. 1951
    • Chinese intervention pushes UN forces back to around 38th parallel