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Transportation Planning and Traffic Calming- Part 2. Traffic Calming: Introduction and Applications June 21st, 2007 by Indraneel Kumar, AICP. Introduction. What is Traffic Calming? Several definitions- ITE, VTPI, . Source: VTPI.org. 3 Es- Education, Enforcement, and Engineering

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slide1

Transportation Planning and Traffic Calming- Part 2

Traffic Calming:

Introduction and Applications

June 21st, 2007

by

Indraneel Kumar, AICP

slide2

Introduction

What is Traffic Calming?

Several definitions- ITE, VTPI,

Source: VTPI.org

  • 3 Es- Education, Enforcement, and Engineering
  • Police enforcement-engineering
  • options- street closure
  • Management of traffic by volume
  • and speed
  • Part of “Context Sensitive Design”
  • Flexible design standards
slide3

History

  • 1960s first experiment commenced in Holland
  • 1970s- Implementation in Germany (Verkehrsberuhigung or Transportation Calming)
  • 1980s- Livable Streets by Appleyard, UC Berkeley
  • Institute of Transportation Engineer’s Guidebook
  • 1990s- Traffic Calming: State of the Practice, Reid Ewing, ITE
  • Thousands of Traffic Calming projects

Control Speed; Control Volume; Control Volume / Speed

slide4

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Speed

Bulb-Out

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

  • Bulbs, Chokers, Neckdowns are interchangeable terms
  • Extension of the curb and sidewalk to narrow the roadway
  • Physical constraint
  • Visual traffic calming effects
  • Pedestrian crossing

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Bulb-Outs/

Curb Extensions/

Neckdowns

slide5

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Speed

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Choker

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Michael King

Chokers

Source: Making Streets That Work

  • Extension of the curb and planting
  • Midblock or intersection corners
  • Parallel, angled chokers, etc.
  • Planting to alert the motorist
  • Physical constraint
  • Visual traffic calming effects
slide6

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Speed

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Michael King

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Portland Office of Transportation

  • Chicanes- staggered curves
  • Alternate extension of the curb
  • Shift in alignment
  • Physical constraint
  • Visual traffic calming effects

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Portland

Chicanes

Source: ITE

slide7

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Speed

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Mark Lavergne

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Michael King

  • Cushions- Convenient for emergency vehicles

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Speed Tables, and Cushions

slide8

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Speed

Source: PCRD / Kumar

Speed Bumps and Humps

Source: PCRD / Kumar

slide9

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Speed

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Peter Lagerway

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / City of Portland

Curb Radius, Raised Crossings and Intersections

  • Tighter curb radius
  • Raised crossing and intersection- alerts drivers
  • Paving treatment + Raised surfaces
  • Visual traffic calming effects
slide10

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Speed

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

  • Delineate users
  • Visual traffic calming effects

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Paving Treatments

slide11

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Speed

  • Delineate the edge
  • ADA Guidelines
  • Visual traffic calming effects

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Source: PCRD / Kumar

Paving Treatments

slide12

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Volume

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Diverters, Partial Street Closures

  • Diagonal diverters create two unconnected streets- intersection
  • Partial closure for motorized traffic

Source: Delaware DOT

slide13

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Volume

  • Partial/ Full closures and diverters are used to retrofit neighborhoods for traffic calming
  • Full closures- reroute the traffic

Full Street Closures

Source: PCRD / Kumar

slide14

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Volume/Speed

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Michael Cynecki

Source: PCRD / Kumar

  • Lane reduction is also known as road diets; lane narrowing- visual traffic calming
  • Gateways- visual traffic calming

Gateways, Lane Reduction

slide15

Applications: Traffic Calming to Control Volume/Speed

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

  • Roundabouts are popular techniques
  • Comprehensive traffic management plan / retrofit

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Refuge Islands, Roundabouts / Traffic Circles

slide16

A grassroots effort for narrow street standards is happening

Source: FHWA

Source: www.pedbikeimages.org / Dan Burden

Applications: Traffic Calming

  • Congress for the New Urbanism
  • Wider street standards are giving way to narrower streets, particularly in residential areas
  • More asphalt = More vehicles

Traditional Neighborhood / Narrow Streets

slide17

Applications: Traffic Calming- Streets for Living

  • Streets designed to be shared by pedestrians, motorists, and the community
  • Sidewalks, planters, benches are merged into the street
  • Physical constraints
  • Speed < 10 miles per hour
  • Public realm
  • Higher costs
  • Emergency vehicles ?

Source: Maricopa County Government

Woonerf

slide18

Traffic Calming Impacts- Benefits and Costs

  • Advocates-
  • Traffic Calming protects residents, bicyclists, and pedestrians
  • Multiple and safe use of the street
  • Critics-
  • Waste of resources
  • Shifts the traffic problems from one to another street

Source: Todd Litman; Traffic Calming: Benefits, Costs, and Equity Impacts; www.VTPI.org; Calgary health region

  • Travel Impacts-
  • Pre and post Traffic Calming travel impacts- motorized / non motorized travel
  • Assumption- 10-20 % increase in non motorized travel- half of that substitute motorized travel
slide19

Traffic Calming Impacts- Benefits

  • Increased Safety
  • # Significant reduction in accidents
  • # Payback through lives, injuries, and insurance savings

Fatal

  • Increased non motorized and decreased motorized travel
  • # Less noise and air pollution; health benefits; parking & gas savings, etc.

Source: Todd Litman; Traffic Calming: Benefits, Costs, and Equity Impacts; www.VTPI.org

slide20

Traffic Calming Impacts- Benefits and Costs

  • Costs
  • Project expenses
  • Liability claims
  • Vehicle delays
  • Traffic spill to other roads
  • Problems for emergency and service vehicles
  • Driver frustration
  • Problems for bicyclists and visually impaired
  • Benefits…..
  • Increased public realm, interaction and crime prevention- Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED)
  • Defensible Space by Oscar Newman
  • Increased property values

Source: Todd Litman; Traffic Calming: Benefits, Costs, and Equity Impacts; www.VTPI.org

slide21

Equity is important in Transportation Planning

  • Horizontal equity is distribution of benefits and costs within groups similar in income, wealth, and ability
  • Vertical equity is distribution of benefits and costs within groups dissimilar in income, wealth, and ability
  • A better balancing of different uses of the street- motorists, cyclists, pedestrians, residents
  • Increased safety for pedestrians, cyclists, residents, and transit users

Source: Todd Litman; Traffic Calming: Benefits, Costs, and Equity Impacts; www.VTPI.org

Traffic Calming Impacts- Horizontal vs. Vertical Equity

slide22

Traffic Calming – Planning Process

  • Public / residents must be involved from the beginning (neighborhood-wide traffic management)
  • Residents petition for traffic calming (street-wide)
  • Public Works or Engineering Department propose- traffic calming strategies and devices
  • Community acceptance is essential
  • Traffic calming device is put on place
  • Project evaluation
  • Traffic calming device is made permanent

Safe & Calm Streets

slide23

Traffic Calming- Sources

www.VTPI.org

www.ITE.org (Traffic Calming: State of the Practice)

www.PBIC.org

www.PPS.org

www.TrafficCalming.org

http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/environment/tcalm/index.htm

www.planning.org (Traffic Calming: PAS 456)

http://www.io.com/~bumper/ada.htm

slide24

Thank you!!!

ikumar@purdue.edu