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BP Oil Spill. Done by: Ong Wei Sern Sim Yew Chong Tan Yan Wei Ang Zheng Yong. Introduction. The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill , also known as “BP Oil Spill” : T he Gulf Of Mexico in 2010 ** BP - British  multinational oil and gas company HQ in London

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BP Oil Spill

Done by: Ong Wei Sern

Sim Yew Chong

Tan Yan Wei

AngZheng Yong

  • The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill, also known as “BP Oil Spill” : The Gulf Of Mexico in 2010

** BP- British multinational oil and gas company HQ in London

  • Largestaccidental marine oil spill

>30% larger in volume than the “Ixtoc I” oil spill

  • Total discharge:210 million US gallons
  • 20 April 2010: High-pressure methane gas from the well expanded into the drilling riser and rose into the drilling rig
  • Drilling rig- Ignited and explode, engulfing the platform, causing the historic oil spill
  • Failed efforts to contain flow

19 September 2010:Well capped and declared sealed

  • Flawed well design
  • Poor management decisions
  • Inadequate preparation
  • Ignorant towards critical indicators
  • Insufficient training
  • Violation of federal regulations
  • Cement failure-Base of well containing oil and gas.Allowing natural gas under huge pressure to shoot onto drilling platform  EXPLOSION
  • Flawed Design:Cement used to seal the bottom of well  Failed to contain hydrocarbons within the reservoir as they were designed to do Allowing gas and liquids to flow up the production casing.
  • Poor management decisions:Rush to completion of the well Huge financial pressure to cut costs and rush the job  The project: $50 million over budget Behind schedule
  • Inadequate Preparation:

BP wellhead was fitted with a blowout preventer (BOP) improperly for use during emergency

Failed to engage. Hydrocarbons shot up the well at an uncontrollable rate and ignited, causing a series of explosions on the rig

  • Ignorant towards Critical Indicators:
  • Failure to recognise initial ominous signs etc. a pipe called a riser- losing fluid
  • BP ignored recommendations byHalliburtonfor morecentralizers(Claimed that the lack of centralizers probably did not affect the cement)
  • Flow of gas into the engine rooms through ventilation system created potential for ignitionShould have redirected the flow of flammable gas
  • Insufficient Training:
  • Workers interpret pressure test wrongly

 Caused reports sent to be inaccurate

  • Violation of Federal Regulations:
  • Required to:

(a) Operate in safe manner

(b) Take Measures to contain oil and gas

(c) Conduct Reliable tests of well pressures

(d) Notify of changes in well drilling plans

  • "The evidence show that BP put profits before people, profits before safety and profits before the environment," -Justice Department attorney Mike Underhill
impacts economical
  • Commercial and recreational fishing was affected from Mississippi to Florida
  • Tourism: Important to Gulf Coast states Affected by cancelled vacations
  • Jobs in the fishing, tourism and even oil industry are in jeopardy
  • Shrimp, crab and oyster farmers and harvesters now only have contaminated seas and estuaries left
  • 2010-2013 Costs: Gulf Coast States  USD23 billion
impacts social and political
Impacts-Social and Political
  • Symptoms of nausea, dehydration, dizziness, headaches, chest pains and vomiting
  • The spill and related clean up released chemicals into the environment
  • Full health impact on the reason may not be known for many years.
  • BP describes itself as a “changed company” with a shattered reputation
  • BP lost its CEO, costed billions of dollars
impacts environmental 1
Impacts-Environmental 1
  • Oil washed up on shores, into wildlife refuges, beaches, and seafood grounds
  • 16,000 total miles of coastline have been affected, including the coasts of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida
impacts environmental 11
Impacts-Environmental 1
  • Many of the areas have unacceptable levels of contamination
  • Over 8,000 animals (birds, turtles, mammals) were reported dead just 6 months after the spill, including many that are already on the endangered species list
impacts environmental 2
Impacts-Environmental 2
  • Signs of an oil-and-dispersantmix were found under the shells of tiny blue crab larvae
  • Some types of spiders and otherinsects became far less numerous
  • Migratory birds carried chemicals from the spill as far as Minnesota (From the Gulf of Mexico)
  • Chronic exposure to toxic materials caused all sorts of problems with immune deficiencies and in somecases even deformities
preventive measures
Preventive measures
  • Searching for risks of oil spills +Assess situation  Develop appropriate oil spill response and crisis management plans
  • Developed oil spill modelling systems and capabilities
preventive measures1
Preventive measures
  • Enhancing the environmental and socio-economic data required in the models: Help inform response planning
  • Conducting staff training in related regions
clean up measures
Clean-up measures
  • Using dispersants- Breaks down oil into smaller structures
  • Once oil in the sea is broken down to smaller droplets Microbes will consume these smaller droplets of oil
  • Danger: Absorbed by marine life, into food chain.
clean up measures1
Clean-up measures
  • Containment and skimming: Buoyant booms floating and web below surface
  • Keep oil from spreading out/ contaminating further
  • Easier to skim oil from surfaceBoats suck/scoop oil, into containment tanks
preventive measures2
Preventive measures
  • Searching for risks of oil spills +Assess situation  Develop appropriate oil spill response and crisis management plans
  • Developed oil spill modelling systems and capabilities
clean up measures2
Clean-up measures
  • Using magnets- oil will be pumped onto a boat treatment facility
  • Magnetic nanoparticles will be exposed to the oil which will then stick to the oil
  • Filtration- With help of magnets to separate oil and water
clean up measures3
Clean-up measures
  • Biological Agents: (Reached shore)Fertilisers spread over shoreline (etc. Phosphorus/Nitrogen)
  • Foster microorganism growth
  • Break down oil into natural components
clean up measures4
Clean-up measures
  • Sorbents:Large sponges absorb oil from water
  • In-situ Burning:Setting oil on fire
  • More effective

But produces large amount of toxic gas

X Near coastal settlement area

video the bp oil spill
Video: The BP Oil Spill
thank you

===THE END===

Thank You!!