EU ENLARGEMENT From Six to Fifteen and Beyond: an Historical Perspective Abridged by Joe Naumann UMSL DG EnlargementInformation Unit
Treaty of Rome 25 March, 1957 His Majesty the King of the Belgians, the President of the FederalRepublic of Germany, the President of the French Republic, the President of the Italian Republic, Her Royal Highness the Grand Duchess of Luxembourg, Her Majesty the Queen of the Netherlands, resolved by pooling their resources to preserve and strengthen peace and liberty and calling upon the other peoples of Europe who share their ideal to join in their efforts, have decided to create a European Community.
From Six To Fifteen 1957
From Six To Fifteen 1973
From Six To Fifteen 1981
From Six To Fifteen 1986
From Six To Fifteen 1995
Tomorrow's Europe 13 December 2002
Treaty of the European Union (TEU) Article 49 of the TEU: Any European State which respects the principles set out in Article 6(1) may apply to become a member of the Union. Article 6 of the TEU: The Union is founded on the principles of liberty, democracy, respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms, and the rule of law, principles which are common to the Member States.
The Europe & Association Agreements Country Europe Europe Official Agreement signed Agreement came application for into force EU Membership Bulgaria March 1993 February 1995 December 1995 Czech Rep. October 1993 February 1995 January 1996 Estonia June 1995 February 1998 November 1995 Hungary December 1991 February 1994 March 1994 Latvia June 1995 February 1998 October 1995 Lithuania June 1995 February 1998 December 1995 Poland December 1991 February 1994 April 1994 Romania February 1993 February 1995 June 1995 Slovakia October 1993 February 1995 June 1995 Slovenia June 1996 February 1999 June 1996 Country Association Association Official Agreement signed Agreement came application for into force EU Membership Turkey September 1963 December 1964 14 April 1987 Malta December 1970 April 1971 16 July 1990 Cyprus December 1972 June 1973 3 July 1990
The Copenhagen Criteria • Political criteriaThe applicant country must have achieved stability of its institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and protection of minorities. • Economic criteriaIt must have a functioning market economy, as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the EU. • Criteria of the adoption of the acquisIt must have the ability to take on the obligations related to of membership, including adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union.
Recommendations of the Commission 15 July 1997 • Based on the following conclusions: • None of the candidates fully satisfy all the criteria at the present time; • Nine countries satisfy the political conditions; • Certain countries have made sufficient progress towards satisfying the economic conditions; • The Commission considers that Hungary, Poland, Estonia, the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Cyprus could be in a position to satisfy all the conditions of membership in the medium-term. The Commission recommends the Council to open negotiations with these countries.
The New Europe: Architecture The European Union 4 liberties:Freemovement of persons goods services captial Single Market Single Currency Political Union Economic &Social Cohesion Trade Environment Culture Politicalconsultation Futuremembership EFTACountries CandidateCountries EEATreaty Europe and AssociationAgreements
The New Europe: Integration EU EFTA EU Applicants
The New Europe: Security Member of EUand NATO Future EU Memberalso in NATO Member of EUbut not NATO Future EU Member& partner of NATO NATO partnersnot in the EU NATO Membersnot in the EU
The New Europe: Schengen EU Member States in the Schengen area Candidate Countries Countries in the Schengen area, not EU Member States and not Candidate Countries EU Member States not in the Schengen area
Berlin European Council 24-25 March 1999 The Presidency Conclusions declared that: In light of the outcome on Agenda 2000, the European Council wishes to send a message of reassurance to the countries negotiating for accession. Enlargement remains an historic priority for the European Union. The accession negotiations will continue each in accordance with its own rhythm and as rapidly as possible. It calls upon the Council and the Commission to ensure that the pace of the negotiations is maintained accordingly.
Accession Partnerships An Accession Partnership has been drawn up for each candidate country. This: • Provides an assessment of the priority areas in which the candidate country needs to make progress in order to prepare for accession; • Outlines the ways in which the Phare Programme will support such accession preparations; • Mobilises all forms of EU support within a single framework for each country; • Contains precise commitments on the part of the candidate countries relating in particular to democracy, macroeconomic stabilisation, industrial restructuring, nuclear safety and the adoption of the acquis. • Is complemented by National Programmes for the Adoption of the Acquis (NPAA).
Helsinki European Council 10-11 December 1999 Impact on accession • The European Council, meeting in Helsinki, decided in particular to: • Launch official negotiations in February 2000 with Bulgaria, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Romania and Slovakia; • Consider each applicant on its own merits during the negotiations. This principle will apply both to the opening and the conduct of negotiations; • Allow applicant countries that have just started the negotiating process to catch up with the countries already in negotiations within a reasonable time, provided they have made sufficient progress with their preparations; • Ensure that progress in negotiations goes hand in hand with progress in incorporating the acquis into legislation and implementing it in practice.
Gothenburg European Council 15-16 June2001 The European Council, meeting in Gothenburg, reached the following conclusion, confirming the breakthroughs in the negotiations on enlargement: • The enlargement process is irreversible; • The roadmap is the framework for the successful completion of the enlargement negotiations; • Completing negotiations by the end of 2002 for those candidate countries that are ready should be possible. The objective is that they should participate in the European Parliament elections of 2004 as members; • Good progress has been made in implementing the pre-accession strategy for Turkey, including an enhanced political dialogue. However, in a number of areas such as human rights, further progress is needed.
Brussels European Council 24-25 October2002 “The historic process launched in Copenhagen in 1993 to overcome the divisions throughout our continent is about to bear fruit …. … the biggest ever enlargement of the Union is now within reach”.
Copenhagen European Council 12-13 December2002 “For the first time in history Europe will become one because unification is the free will of its people. … The deal that we have reached here in Copenhagen represents EU at its best: leadership, solidarity and determination”. R. Prodi
Accession negotiations: Chapters 1. Free movement of goods 2. Freedom of movement for persons 3. Freedom to provide services 4. Free movement of capital 5. Company law 6. Competition policy 7. Agriculture 8. Fisheries 9. Transport policy 10. Taxation 11. Economic and monetary union 12. Statistics 13. Social policy and employment 14. Energy 15. Industrial policy 16. Small and medium-sized enterprises 17. Science and research 18. Education and training 19. Telecommunications and IT 20. Culture and audiovisual policy 21. Regional policy and structural instruments 22. Environment 23. Consumers and health protection 24. Justice and home affairs 25. Customs union 26. External relations 27. Common foreign and security policy 28. Financial control 29. Financial and budgetary provisions 30. Institutions 31. Other
Accession negotiations: Procedure • Submission of negotiating positions by candidate country, chapter by chapter, following screening. • The Commission (DG Enlargement in consultation with relevant "sectoral" DGs) prepares a draft common position (for each chapter), and submits it to the Council (meeting as an intergovernmental conference). • The Council unanimously adopts a common position and unanimously decides to open the negotiations on the chapter. • Common positions may be altered in the course of negotiations if the applicants submit fresh information or agree to withdraw a request for a transitional period. • Chapter provisionally closed following unanimous decision by the intergovernmental conference. Chapters definitively closed only when all negotiations with the candidate country are concluded.
Accession negotiations: Roadmap • First half of 2001: opening of first chapters: internal market related matters, social matters and environment. • Second half of 2001: provisional closure for chapters needing a longer preparation period in the second semester: competition, transport, energy, taxation, customs union, agriculture, justice and home affairs, financial control, Schengen. • First half of 2002: provisional closure of remaining chapters and agreement on transitional measures: agriculture (remaining questions), regional policy and structural instruments, financial and budgetary provisions, institutions, other matters.
Towards an Enlarged Europe 9 October 2002 - Regular Reports: • The Commission recommends conclusion of negotiations with ten candidate countries: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Slovak Republic, and Slovenia. • These countries will be ready for membership at the beginning of 2004. • 2007: indicative date for accession chosen by Bulgaria and Romania. • Strengthening support for Turkey’s pre-accession preparations.
The Future Member States Next steps for the candidate countries: • Preparations for membership will continue and be monitored by the Commission. • Special effort required in the following sectors: customs, agriculture, regional policy, financial control. • A monitoring report will be issued by the Commission 6 months before envisaged date of accession. • Spring 2003: signing of the Accession Treaty. • A specific safeguard clause shoud be introduced in the Accession Treaty to allow the Commission to take measures in case of problems. • 380 million eurosInstitution Building Facility to support judicial reform and administrative improvements in the new Member States.
Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey Next steps for Bulgaria and Romania: • 2007: target date to conclude negotiations. • Detailed roadmaps to complete preparations. • Judicial and administrative reform. Next steps for Turkey: • to fully meet the political criterion. • Enhanced support from the EU • Increased financial assistance from 2004.
Financial issues (1) 12-13 December2002 • Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council • The Overall Financial Agreement: • €41 billion in commitments agreed for 2004-2006; • New Member States will benefit from the EU funds for the whole of 2004; • Reduction by one-third of new Member States' contributions to EC budget in 2004. • Structural actions: • €22 billion agreed for 2004-2006, of which one third for the Cohesion Fund and two thirds for structural Funds. • Agriculture: • Progressive introduction of direct payment to new Member States farmers; • €5 billion for rural development in 2004-2006.
Financial issues (2) 12-13 December2002 • Conclusions of the Copenhagen European Council • Internal policies: • €2.6 billion extra funds available to new Member States to participate in the EC internal policies programmes; • Creation of a new Schengen facility (€850 million); • €380 million for a transitional facility to support institution building in new Member States; • €105 million to support nuclear safety in Lithuania and Slovakia. • Lump-sum payment to new Member States: • €2.4 billion as cash-flow lump sum, to prevent cash-flow difficulties in the first years of accession; • Budgetary compensation payments available to ensure no new Member States would be worse off on accession compared to 2003 (Czech Republic, Slovenia, Malta and Cyprus).
Accession: Financial Framework Financial framework for Enlargement 2004-2006:
The Phare Programme • Priorities for Action • Institution buildingThe candidate countries will be helped to strengthen their democratic institutions and their public administration in order to facilitate their introduction of the acquis and to ensure that they have the administrative and judicial structures to apply the acquis effectively (30% of the budget). • Financing of investmentPhare co-finances investment in (i) the regulatory infrastructure needed to ensure compliance with the acquis and (ii) in economic and social cohesion through measures similar to those supported in Member States through EU structural funds (70% of the budget).
European Union: the biggest tradingpartner with candidate countries in 2001 EU 15 Trade with candidate countries in 2001 (million €)
EU 15 Exports towards candidatecountries in 2001 (per country) EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries(Share by Country) in 2001
EU 15 Exports towards candidatecountries in 2001 (per sector) EU 15 Exports towards candidate countries(Share by Sector) in 2001
EU 15 Imports from candidatecountries in 2001 (per country) EU 15 Imports from candidate countries(Share by Country) in 2001
EU 15 Imports from candidatecountries in 2001 (per sector) EU 15 Imports from candidate countries(Share by Sector) in 2001
Candidate countries GDPin 1999 & 2000 Source: Eurostat PPP: Purchase Power Parity
Communication Strategyfor Enlargement: Objectives • Adopted by the Commission in May 2000, the objectives of the Communication Strategy are: • In Member States • Communicating the reasons for enlargement; • Promoting dialogue and debate in society; • Information about candidate countries. • In Candidate Countries • Improving of public knowledge and understanding; • Explaining of implications of accession; • Explaining of preparation for membership.
Communication Strategyfor Enlargement: Budget Budget per country and for the Central Services (in € million) *: Member States **: Central services
New EU Constitution -2005 • Soundly defeated in France • Soundly defeated in the Netherlands • Significance: • A major setback in further unification • Not an insurmountable obstacle – it will probably take longer to achieve than had originally hoped and planned for.