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Chapter 13. Discussion and Review. Temuchin's Rise. Born ca. 1162, d. 1227 After long period of tribal conflict and intrigue, succeeded in unprecedented feat of unifying all Mongols. Declared Khan of Khans and given name Genghis Khan, 1206. . Mongol Empire.

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Chapter 13 l.jpg

Chapter 13

Discussion and Review

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Temuchin's Rise

  • Born ca. 1162, d. 1227

  • After long period of tribal conflict and intrigue, succeeded in unprecedented feat of unifying all Mongols.

  • Declared Khan of Khans and given name Genghis Khan, 1206.

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Mongol Empire

  • (1206–1405) was the largest land empire in World History

  • Stretched from Korea to Hungary and Baghdad

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Genghis Khan’s Value Statement

“The greatest joy a man can know is to conquer his enemies and drive them before him. To ride their horses and take away their possessions. To see the faces of those who were dear to them bedewed with tears, and to clasp their wives and daughters in his arms.”

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Describe both Mongol horse breeding and the climate of Mongolia.

  • Mongol horses

  • could survive the cold and dry climate in Mongolia.

  • Mongols purposely did not feed or shelter their horses, leaving them to forage for their own food.

  • Natural selection

    • thus ensured that only those able to adapt to the environment would survive.

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Mongol Battle Tactics Mongolia.

  • Constant practice in riding, archery.

  • Traveled very light.

  • Extraordinary endurance.

  • Extraordinary military discipline.

  • Extremely ruthless in battle.

  • combined technological advances in their bows with outstanding horseback ability and flexibility of military tactics.

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Mongol Battle Tactics Mongolia.

  • Remarkable ability to coordinate armies separated by great distances.

  • Incorporated non-Mongol soldiers with Mongol leaders

  • Mobility unheard of by armies of the time--up to 100 miles/day.

  • Mongol combination of mobility and communication probably not equaled again until W.W. II.

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Mongol Rule Mongolia.

  • Once a conquest was complete, the Mongols were not oppressive rulers.

  • Cities generally left under native governors.

  • Conquered peoples to live much as they had — as long as they paid tribute to the Mongols.

  • Maximizing revenues was the central goal of Mongol leaders

  • Utilized tax farming

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Pax Mongolica Mongolia., or Mongol Peace

  • Peaceful periods allowed for the movement of people, knowledge, and skills across Eurasia

  • Technology such as gunpowder, diplomatic passports and movable type spread to Europe

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Expansion of the Mongol Empire (1206 -1258) Mongolia.

  • Trade

  • Iron most important; wood, cotton, grain, silk

  • Disease through trade routes

  • Politics

  • Led by a Khan (decision ratified by a council)

  • Religion

  • Khans represented Sky God, who transcended all cultures and religions

  • tolerance of many religions and attempted to gain the support of all religious leaders.

  • Marriage

  • Arranged marriages

  • Women played an important role in negotiating alliances

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Positive qualities of Mongols Mongolia.

  • Discipline, obedience to own laws

  • Sense of honor and loyalty, respect for these qualities in others, even opponents

  • High status of women

  • These qualities attested even by European observers who generally detested the Mongols

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After Genghis Khan Mongolia.

  • Empire splits into three functionally independent realms:

    • China (Yuan Empire) and Mongolia

    • Russia (Golden Horde)

    • Persia / Iran (Il Khan)

  • In principlethe rulers of Russia and Persia were regents for the Khan in China

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Mongols in Russia Mongolia.

  • Ruled Russia from afar

  • Main goal was to extract as much tax revenue as possible

  • Moscow

  • 1300s emerged as the new center of Russia and heart of Russia

  • Orthodox Church

  • Granted special privileges which helped to reconcile the Russian people

  • Ivan III

  • Prince of Moscow ended Mongol rule in 1480 and adopted the title of Tsar

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Mongolia.I did not tell half of what I saw.” Marco Polo

The Travels of Marco Polois considered one of the most famous travel guides in history.

Polo’s famous account of his seventeen years of service to Kublai Khan provided Europe with the first substantial record of China.

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In the Footsteps of Marco Polo Mongolia.

Check it out… Great Stuff

The above picture is from an illuminated manuscript showing Marco Polo with the Khan.

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Mongol Empire Mongolia.