Chapter 11 Unique Groups C H A P T E R 11 Unique Groups Julia Wallace Carr, Brenda Robertson, Rebecca Lesnik, John Byl, Jeffrey Ferguson, Carol J. Potter, and Laurie Ogilvie Prepared by H. Joey Gray
Learning Outcomes Define and Identify • Campus recreation • Users of campus recreation programs and services • Current trends and issues affecting correctional recreation • Steps necessary for a career in worksite recreation and health promotion (continued)
Learning Outcomes (continued) Explain and Discuss • Historical progression of campus recreation • Benefits of participation in campus recreation programs and services • Links between trends in campus recreation and commercial fitness facilities • General structure and history of correctional systems in Canada and the United States • Philosophical shifts in the role of recreation in corrections throughout history • Goals and types of correctional recreation programming • History, benefits, programs, services, and trends of worksite recreation and health promotion
Campus Recreation • Defined as a program that provides facilities and activities all along the spectrum from very large to those just for a few participants. • Intended to promote the various components of wellness and encourage the development of lifelong skills and positive attitudes through activity (Mittelstaedt, 2006). • Participant base for campus recreation typically includes students, faculty, and staff on a given campus (Franklin & Hardin, 2008). • Many centers also serve the local community through special memberships, activities, and facility rentals.
History of Campus Recreation • Intramural sports began as student-initiated and student-sponsored athletic contests in eastern colleges. • In 1913, the first professional staff members were hired to direct programs for men at the University of Michigan and the Ohio State University. • After WWII, campus recreation expanded because of significant growth in student enrollment.
Benefits of Campus Recreation • Significant influence on campus environment. NIRSA (2004) reported that 75 percent of college students participate in campus recreation programs. • Retention of students. • Recruitment and satisfaction indicators for the general student body. • Enhanced GPA and overall wellness. • Sense of belonging. • Health and wellness.
Three Major Individual Benefitsof Campus Recreation • Improved overall emotional well-being • Reduced stress • Improved happiness (NIRSA, 2004)
Intramural Sports Is One Aspect of a Comprehensive Campus Recreation Program
Trends in Campus Recreation • Trends occur in two basic areas: • Facilities: significant spending on improving and building facilities • Facility construction, expansion, and renovation projects. • Costs of these capital projects in total are over $1.7 billion, and the average project expenditure is $13.2 million (NIRSA, 2010). • Programming • Fitness programs • Mind–body balance programs, educational programs, sports tournaments or races, adult sports teams, individual sports activities, personal training, swimming programming, day and summer camps, and aquatic exercise programs
Career Opportunities • Typically, careers in campus recreation begin when college students accept employment positions at the recreation center. • Graduate assistantships offer opportunities for employment.
Correctional Recreation • A significant portion of the population does not support correctional recreation despite the fact that these programs can expose inmates to more socially acceptable means of spending their free time. • Correctional recreation can also instill within offenders appropriate outlets for expression spanning the functional domains. • The nature of the facility determines the role of recreation. (continued)
Correctional Recreation (continued) • People housed within the correctional system are charged with a range of crimes. • Represent all races, backgrounds, origins, physical conditions, and age groups. • Some have never been incarcerated, whereas others are repeat offenders. • These factors, along with the size of the facility and the number of staff available, present one of the biggest challenges to the provision of recreation programming.
Philosophical Approachesto Correctional Recreation • The role of recreation within corrections continues to be a topic of debate within the justice system today. • There are various philosophical approaches to correctional recreation. What is your view?
Recreation Programmingin Correctional Recreation • Purpose is to provide opportunities meant to help offenders develop leisure skills and attitudes to optimize their quality of life within the institution and to prepare them to use their leisure time appropriately after reentry into society. • Correctional recreation programs are expected to keep inmates constructively occupied, to reduce idleness, and to enhance their physical, emotional, and social well-being.
Programming Goals Overview • These programs will encourage and help inmates adopt healthy lifestyle habits through participation in physical fitness. • Health education programs will also decrease the need for inmate medical treatment (Federal Bureau of Prisons, n.d.).
Programming Goals • Develop acceptable outlets for stress. • Identify activities that serve as alternatives to addictions. • Foster interpersonal skills such as cooperation and teamwork. • Develop a new sense of purpose. • Enhance self-esteem through success. (continued)
Programming Goals (continued) • Increase access to new social environments. • Foster new interests; negotiate constraints. • Develop awareness of personal needs and appropriate avenues to satisfy them. • Develop decision-making and problem-solving skills. • Develop new interests that could evolve into a career.
Types of Programming • First concern is safety. • Facilities vary and affect the types of programs that can be offered. • Active programs • Basketball, flag football, shuffleboard • Passive programs to occupy minds • Board games, drama, quilting • Therapeutic outcomes • Pet therapy
Correctional Recreation Professional • Mission of the correctional recreation professional • Recreation professionals must work diligently at • educating, • maintaining programmatic integrity, and • exercising the skills of creative problem solving. • Staff members can be sworn law enforcement officers or civilian personnel. • Most facilities require correctional recreation staff to hold some type of advanced degree.
Other Credentials • Helpful • Certified personal trainer • Therapeutic recreation specialist or certified leisure professional • Fluent in a second language • All correctional recreation personnel should • be certified in first aid and CPR and • trained in, or at least familiar with, the duties of 24/7 staff. • Candidates interested in applying to a correctional institution are subject to polygraph testing, urinalysis, and background checks.
Trends and Issues • Incarceration rates, budget cuts, philosophical shifts, aging infrastructure, and meeting the needs of the various segments of the incarcerated population based on factors such as age, sex, race, social economics, and societal norms • Varying perceptions of the role of recreation within correctional settings
Faith-Based Recreation • Religious institutions play an important role in providing satisfying recreational opportunities within their communities. • When considering how well we respond to people of faith in a public setting, reflect on this statement: How well do recreation providers meet the needs of religiously committed people?
Differences Within Faith Traditions • Religious groups are not necessarily a homogeneous unit. • Differences between religious groups arise from several factors: • People vary in their individual commitment and ethnic background. • Some people’s religious beliefs intentionally and fully shape their recreation choices, whereas others express beliefs that unintentionally and partially shape their recreation choices. • Nationality also shapes unique differences between religious groups.
Islam • Nearly 20 percent of the world’s population follows Islam, a way of life led by the teachings of Muhammad. • Muslims are the fastest growing religious group in the United States (Kosmin, Mayer, & Keysar, 2001).
Considerations in Recreation Programming for Muslims • According to Islamic teachings, both men and women should learn to ride horses, shoot a bow and arrow, swim safely, fence, run, and wrestle (Anahar, Becker, & Messing, 1992). • Muslims may not participate in sport for personal financial benefit or for personal fame, nor can they ignore religious practices concerning prayer, modest clothing, and men spectating at sporting events for women or women watching men (Fleming & Khan, 1994; Kamiyole, 1993). • Clothing can be a major barrier for Muslim women. (continued)
Considerations in Recreation Programming for Muslims (continued) • Opportunity for prayer must be made available in the morning, at 7:30 in the evening, as well as at three other times during the day. The Ramadan requirements of daily fasting from dawn until sunset during the ninth month of the Muslim year must be taken into consideration (Taylor & Toohey, 2001/2002). • Recreation must not interfere with family responsibilities such as watching over siblings, performing household duties, or doing school work (Carrington, Chivers, & Williams, 1987; De Knop, Theeboom, Wittock, & De Martelaer, 1996; Fleming, 1993). • Note the eight suggestions for providing a more inviting physical-activity culture that respects Islamic boundaries (Kahan, 2003a).
Eight Suggestionsfor Recreation Programmingfor Muslims • Offer more opportunities to voice their concerns. • Speak with Muslim clergy, parents, and participants for advice about advancing recreation participation. • Need more Muslim role models that excel in PE and sport. • Providers must ask more questions from and about Muslims to better understand their faith tradition. • Recreation providers need to be aware of prayer times, daylong fasts during Ramadan, and other important holidays. (continued)
Eight Suggestionsfor Recreation Programmingfor Muslims (continued) • Realize that Muslims come from a tradition rich in activities such as badminton, field hockey, and folk games. But coed activities that have potential for body contact cannot be considered. • Provide segregated games for females and males. • Make showers optional or provide private stalls for showering and changing. • Recognize clothing and modesty issues. • Muslims should encourage the development of Muslim-specific clubs and organizations.
Christianity • During the past 100 years, congregations have enjoyed togetherness in church buildings with activities such as the following: • Coffee socials • Boys and girls clubs • Annual church picnics • Dances • Competitive leagues with teams from other similar churches
Recreation Programming for Christians • KidsGames, modeled after the Olympics, began in Barcelona in 1985 and has grown worldwide. Includes summer camps at churches, Bible knowledge, poster contest, and essay questions (Bynum, 2003). • Adult church leagues generally do not permit alcohol use at games, and they also have time built in for prayer, fellowship, and witnessing. • In small-town churches in Ontario, sport is ranked lowest in current activities. • Association of Church Sports and Recreation Ministers (CSRM) helps churches use sport and recreation programs to reach out to their communities.
Judaism • Those who identify themselves as Jewish form the second-largest religious group in the United States (Kosmin, Mayer, & Keysar, 2001). • Although Christians and Muslims see all of life as affected by their religious commitments, Jews distinguish between sacred and secular activities, therefore providing an alternative perspective on faithful living in one’s recreation. • Some recreation activities are based more on national commitments than on Jewish faith commitments.
Recreation Programs for Jews • Recreation programs are completely secular. The recreation centers cater mostly to Jewish people, but are open to others. Some programs focus on Jewish culture, such as Jewish writers, and are open to non-Jews. • Participants in recreation programs are approximately 50 percent Jewish and 50 percent non-Jewish.
Employmentin Faith-Based Recreation • Professionals in faith-based recreation must meet three requirements: • Must have a passionate commitment to the faith. • Most have training in recreation and leadership. • Must nurture the faith or the culture through recreation.
Worksite Recreationand Health Promotion • The nature of the services provided has gone through many evolutions and continues to evolve in the 21st century. • Company-sponsored picnics, athletic teams, hobby clubs and classes, bowling leagues, aquatics programs, exercise breaks, and group vacations became typical examples of employer-offered services through the first 100 years of employer-sponsored recreation and health promotion programs. (continued)
Worksite Recreationand Health Promotion (continued) • After World War II many more companies began providing recreation and fitness facilities. • These facilities included amenities such as gymnasiums, aquatics areas, tennis courts, walking trails, golf courses, athletic fields, aerobic and strength-training areas, and child care.
Benefits to the Employer • Advantages in the recruitment and retention of employees • Improved employee morale and loyalty • Reduced health care claims and cost • Higher levels of employee productivity • Better interpersonal relationships in the work setting • Reduced absenteeism • Enhanced image in the business community and community at large
Benefits to the Employee • Improved wellness, which reduces out-of-pocket health care cost. • Improved interpersonal relations with coworkers. • Reduction of work-related stress, which lessens stress-related health risks and improves home life. • Improved physical and emotional well-being, which enhances personal participation in active lifestyle choices with family and friends.
Delivery of Services • Retention of this responsibility by the HR department • As a contractual service with an outside company that specializes in employee recreation and health promotion • Partnerships with local health care providers • Discounted programs for employees with local park and recreation agencies and commercial fitness providers
Worksite Recreationand Health Promotion Trends • Educated and experienced fitness professionals • Special fitness programs for older adults • Strength training • Children and obesity • Personal training • Core training • Exercise and weight loss • Boot camp • Functional fitness • Physician referrals (Thompson, 2010)
Career Preparation • Need knowledge, skills, and experience in a variety of areas to remain competitive in the job market. • Need to be competent in the areas of public relations, human resource management, budget development and management, facility design and management, risk management, recreation and fitness programming, advocacy, health promotion and exercise science, and recreation sports management. • Complete a university approved internship. • Obtain professional certification through a recognized professional association.
Where to Look for Jobs • www.corporatefitnessworks.com • www.acsm.healthjobsplus.com • www.hfit.com/careers.asp • http://phfr.com/JobFinder • www.medifit.com • www.wellnessconnection.com • www.cooperinstitute.org • www.hpcareer.net
Armed Forces Recreation:Two Philosophies Recreation programs in Canada and the United States are based on the following philosophies: • Members of the military and their families are entitled to the same quality of life as that enjoyed by the society that they protect. • Quality recreation programs have a direct effect on mission readiness and retention. Recreation programs maintain a positive quality of life that leads to a sound mind and body, a productive community, and a strong family environment.
History • Organized Canadian and U.S. programs started on the battlefields of World War I. As the forerunners of today’s recreation specialists, the Salvation Army and Red Cross ministered to the needs of soldiers. • In 1940, at the beginning of World War II, the U.S. Morale Division was established in the U.S. Army. • In Canada, success of the military depends on the physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being of the military community.
Today’s Armed Forces Programs Both in Canada and the United States, recreation programs within the military environment are broad in scope, evolving constantly to meet the ever changing needs of the military community. • United States: Morale, Welfare, and Recreation (MWR) • Canada: Personnel Support (PSP) Division of the Canadian Forces Personnel Support Agency
Four Differences in Military Programming • Military families relocate frequently. • Many military communities are in remote or unstable locations around the world. • Scope of the recreation department is exclusive to military personnel and their families. • Use of volunteers is critical to success.
Department of the Navyand United States Marine Corps • The U.S. Navy Morale, Welfare, and Recreation Division is located in Memphis, Tennessee. Recreation staff work on U.S. installations and on the Navy’s larger ships. • The Marine Corps, Quantico, Virginia, provides fitness and recreation, personal services, and business activities in direct support of individual and family readiness and retention.
Department of the Armyand Department of the Air Force • The U.S. Army, headquartered in the Community Family Support Center (CFSC) in Alexandria, Virginia, meets the needs of all active, reserve, and guard soldiers; civilian employees; retirees; and family members. • The U.S. Air Force, headquartered in San Antonio, Texas, under the title of Services Squadron, contributes to readiness and improves productivity through quality of life for Air Force people.
U.S. Coast Guard • The U.S. Coast Guard is aligned under the Department of Homeland Security. • The smallest of the service branches, it offers a critical element in the quality-of-life programming for its members and their families worldwide. • Its mission is to uplift the spirits of the Coast Guard family and be an essential element of Coast Guard mission readiness and retention through customer-owned and driven MWR programs and services.
Canadian Armed Forces • The mission of the Canadian Armed Forces, or the Department of National Defense, is to protect Canada, defend North America in cooperation with the United States, and to contribute to peace and international security. • The organization resides exclusively under the authority of the federal government and is present in every Canadian province and territory and represents the cultural, linguistic, and regional diversity of Canada.
Canada’s Maritime Commandand Canada’s Land Force • Canada’s Navy conducts surveillance, defends waters against illegal fishing and ecological damage, and supports international initiatives for peace and humanitarian assistance. • Canada’s Army performs combat operations and supports peacekeeping and disaster recovery missions at home and abroad. In crises, the army delivers assistance and helps civil authorities restore public order.