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1. “VOLUME” Cytosol and Cytoplasm PowerPoint Presentation
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1. “VOLUME” Cytosol and Cytoplasm

1. “VOLUME” Cytosol and Cytoplasm

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1. “VOLUME” Cytosol and Cytoplasm

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  1. 1. “VOLUME”Cytosol and Cytoplasm cytosol: viscous liquid in cell analogy: JELL-O cytoplasm: viscous liquid + cell organelles analogy: JELL-O w/ fruit

  2. 2. Flagella and 3. Cilia • flagella: long extension of cell surface, ex. tail of a sperm cell • analogy: people mover • cilia: short extensions of cell surface, move cell, move substances across the cell, ex. surface of paramecium • analogy: legs

  3. 4. Cytoskeleton • cytoskeleton: “skeleton” of the cell, allows for movement within cell, made of microtubules and microfilaments • analogy: human skeleton

  4. 5. Cell Membrane • cell membrane: phospholipid and protein “skin” around cytoplasm, selectively permeable (allows certain materials into/out of cell • analogy: security guard • Draw and label the diagram on next slide.

  5. Fatty acid “tails” (lipids) Phospholipids Phosphate Group Integral protein Peripheral protein

  6. 6. Nucleus • nucleus: membrane-bound structure, contains genetic info, nuclear pores allow RNA and ribosomal subunits to leave nucleus • analogy: brain

  7. 7. Nucleolus • nucleolus: dark spot inside nucleus, where ribosomal subunits are made (leave through nuclear pores) • analogy: Lego factory

  8. 8. DNA • DNA: found in nucleus (eukaryotes) and in cytosol (prokaryotes) • chromatin: unwound, “working DNA” (replication, repair, transcription) • chromosomes: “copied DNA” (condense for cell division) • analogy: information in an encyclopedia

  9. 9. Ribosomes • ribosomes: most numerous organelle, protein synthesis, free-floating (cytosol), attached to rough ER • analogy: Garage Band

  10. 10/11/12. Rough and Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum and Vesicle • rough ER: stores and transports proteins, sends proteins to Golgi • analogy: highway • smooth ER: detoxifies (lots in liver cells), phospholipid and steroid production, transport • analogy: filter • vesicle: membrane-bound, storage (ex. proteins from ribosome) • analogy: Rubbermaid container

  11. 13. Golgi Apparatus • Golgi: receives raw material from ER, modifies, processes, and sorts material into vesicles to be sent to cytosol or out of cell • analogy: post office

  12. 14. Lysosomes lysosomes: digest worn out cell parts (enzymes), digest food absorbed by the cell, mainly in animal cells (100s per cell) analogy: garbage disposal

  13. 15. Mitochondria • mitochondria: makes the cell’s energy (ATP), folded inner membrane = increased surface area, has its own DNA • analogy: power plant

  14. 16. Cell Wall • cell wall: strong, outer covering of plant cells, contains cellulose, support, prevents dehydration • analogy: castle wall

  15. 17. Vacuoles (animal cells) and Central Vacuole (plant cells) • vacuoles: animal cells, small and numerous, accumulate toxic wastes, storage • analogy: sponges (clean up and remove water) • central vacuole: up to 90% of plant cell’s volume, keeps cell pressurized (“turgidity”) • analogy: swimming pool

  16. 18. Chloroplast • chloroplast: plant cells, type of plastid filled with chlorophyll, turns solar energy into chemical energy (glucose) • analogy: oven

  17. 19. Centrosomes • centrioles: animal cells, in pairs, organize chromosomes during cell division • microtubule-organizing center (MTOC): plant cells, same function as centrioles