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The Civil War. Please have the Johnny Reb , Billy Yank article and your chart out on your desk. Two Sides. Union/North/blue . Confederacy/south/gray. Capital: Washington D.C. President: Abraham Lincoln Significant Generals: George McClellan Ulysses S. Grant William T. Sherman.

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Presentation Transcript
two sides
Two Sides

Union/North/blue

Confederacy/south/gray

  • Capital: Washington D.C.
  • President: Abraham Lincoln
  • Significant Generals:
    • George McClellan
    • Ulysses S. Grant
    • William T. Sherman
  • Capital: Richmond, VA
  • President: Jefferson Davis
  • Significant Generals:
    • Robert E. Lee
    • Stonewall Jackson
army size
Army Size

Union

Confederacy

  • 959,640 troops by end of war
  • Yankees
  • 445,203 troops by end of war
  • Rebels
border states
Border States
  • All have strategic locations
  • Missouri controls part of MS River
  • Kentucky controlled Ohio River
  • Maryland surrounds D.C.
lincoln s controversial move
Lincoln’s Controversial Move
  • Worried about Maryland
  • Arrested those who supported secession
  • Suspends Habeas Corpus
    • Being told what you are accused of.
  • 1862 – suspends nationwide
  • "The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.” – Article I, Section 9
what other limitations on liberties occurred during the war
What other limitations on liberties occurred during the war?
  • Proclaimed a blockade without the approval of Congress.
  • Increased size of Federal army (only Congress can do this).
  • Directed Secretary of Treasury to advance $2 million to three private citizens for military purposes
  • “Supervised” voting in border states – intimidation
  • Suspension of certain newspapers, arrested editors
suspension of wartime liberties
Suspension of Wartime Liberties
  • How does Lincoln defend himself?
    • Congress generally accepted or confirmed what he was doing.
    • A man suffering from “temporary illness” will not keep taking medicine for the remainder of his healthy life.
the draft
The Draft…
  • North: volunteers at first, with each state having a quota to meet.
  • 1863 – federal conscription law (first time ever on a national scale).
  • South: volunteers (all ages), then draft in 1862
  • “Rich Man’s War, Poor Man’s Fight” – why?
    • Hire a substitute
    • Purchase exemption for $300
    • South – for every 20 slaves, one white exemption
draft riots
Draft Riots
  • New York – Democratic stronghold – 1863
  • Started by poor, anti-black Irish-Americans
  • Initial targets: government buildings
  • Mob violence grows and attacks black people and anything associated with them (including an orphanage)
  • Estimated 24-100 killed
  • Over $1.5 million in property damage
paying for the war north
Paying for the War - North
  • Increase excise taxes on tobacco and alcohol.
  • Income tax – first time in nation’s history.
  • Morrill Tariff Act
    • Increased duties 5-10%
  • Tariff rates increased as the war went on.
  • Issued “greenbacks” – paper money
    • Around $450 million at face value
    • Value determined by nation’s credit
    • Slow inflation – money decreased in value.
  • Borrowing
    • Sale of bonds
paying for war north
Paying for War - North
  • National Banking System
    • Stimulate sale of government bonds
    • Establish a standard bank-note currency
  • Banks that joined could buy gov’t bonds and issue sound paper money backed by them.
  • First significant step toward unified banking network since 1836 when 2nd BUS was killed by AJ
  • Will be replaced by Federal Reserve in 1913.
paying for war south
Paying for War - South
  • Blockade
  • Confederate bonds sold abroad and at home
  • Increase in taxes
  • 10% tax on farm produce
  • States’ righters generally opposed to heavy direct taxation
  • So….printing of blue-backed paper money
    • Runaway inflation
    • 9,000% inflation rate
economic effects north
Economic Effects - North
  • General prosperity
  • New factories (protective tariff)
  • Millionaire class
    • Speculation and graft
  • Sewing machine
    • Standardized sizes
  • Surplus of grain
    • Mechanical reaper
    • Dethroning of King Cotton
  • Discovery of petroleum oil
  • Industry that did suffer - shipping
economic effects south
Economic Effects - South
  • Suffocation from blockade
  • 30% of wealth  12% of wealth
  • Destruction by union army
    • Transportation collapsed
    • ½ of livestock killed
    • 1/3 farm machinery destroyed
  • Many refugees (white and black)
  • Ultimately, cotton was not king
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