William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc. Horrible Histories – The Measly Middle Ages WS - Weaponry of the Middle Ages. Lesson 11-7. 1. TN SPI 6.6.3 Describe ways in which individuals can change groups (William of Normandy, King John)
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William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc Horrible Histories – The Measly Middle Ages WS - Weaponry of the Middle Ages Lesson 11-7 1
TN SPI • 6.6.3 Describe ways in which individuals can change groups (William of Normandy, King John) • 6.6.2 Recognize the impact of individuals on world history (William the Conqueror, Joan of Arc) • 6.4.3 Identify the development of written laws (Magna Carta) 2
William the Conqueror King John Joan of Arc
Birth of Nation-States • Feudalism was based on a patchwork of kingdoms ruled by kings and lords. • Over time, kings became more powerful and large areas of Europe united under one ruler; leading to the end of feudalism. • During the 1100s these small kingdoms gave birth to nation-states; a strong central government with a single ruler – the monarch or king. • Kingdoms grew larger with the royal marriage of two rulers, and Christianity continued to influence daily life. 4
William the Conqueror • During the AD 900s, the Vikings conquered part of western France. The region became known as Normandy. • By AD 1000s, a Viking descendant named William ruled the land. • William, king of Normandy, was also a cousin of King Edward of England.
King Edward of England • When Edward died, William believed he should be king of England. • In 1066, William along with his army of knights crossed the English Channel and landed in England. • It was there where he fought the Battle of Hastings. • William became known as William the Conqueror.
Accomplishments of William • Ruler of Normandy (France) • Invaded England in 1066 and declared himself king of England. Battle of Hastings • Set up a system of Feudalism in England giving large land grants to the knights who helped him in battle • Took the first census in Europe since Roman times – called the Domesday Book. • A count of people, manors, and animals
William the Conqueror • King William spent much of his time crushing revolts against him. • He proved himself a strong ruler who dominated his nobles. • William died at the age of 50 when his horse fell and crushed him. • The kings who followed him – Henry I and Henry II – further increased the power of the king. • King John, the son of Henry II, would soon face the anger of English nobles. 9
England English Channel France 10
King John Angers the Nobles • John, the son of Henry II, became king of England in 1199. • He quickly increased his wealth and power. • He heavilytaxedthe citizens. • He jailed his enemies unjustly without a trial. • He seized Church property. • He tried to block the pope’s choice for bishop of England. 11
The Magna Carta • On June 15, 1215, two-thousand angry nobles gathered and presented King John with a list of demands. • Called the Magna Carta, John was forced to sign the document limiting the power of the king. • The Magna Carta created the “Great Council” of lords and clergy who were consulted before the king could make decisions. • The Great Council eventually became the Parliament, a law making legislature and unified England into a nation. 12
Accomplishments of King John • King John signed (forced) the Magna Carta. • This document: • Limited the power of the king/monarch • Established that people have rights and the power of the government should be limited • Created a Great Council or Parliament • The king could no longer collect taxes unless Parliament agreed • Habeas corpus – could not imprison indefinitely without a trial
Hundred Years’ War • Despite the growth of nation-states, Western Europe was not at peace. • The Hundred Years’ War was fought between England and France from 1337 to 1453. 14
Causes of the War • Several events caused the war: • Royal marriages allowed English kings to govern and control French lands. • England and France both wanted control of the English Channel. • Each nation wanted to control trade in the region and the wealth that it brought. 15
Joan of Arc • became one of France’s greatest heroes. • was the daughter of a peasant farmer. • was very religious and believed she saw heavenly visions. • dressed as a man, cut her hair short and convinced Charles, heir to the French throne, that God called her to lead the French forces at the Battle of Orleans. • was given armor, attendants, horses, and a special banner to carry into battle.
The War Drags On • As the war went on, fought by one king and then another, England won most of the battles. • The tide turned in 1429 when a peasant girl called Joan of Arc took charge of the French forces at the Battle of Orleans. • Under Joan’s command, the French defeated the English and led her forces to victory in other battles. 17
The War Drags On • In 1430 Joan of taken prisoner and accused of witchcraft and wearing men’s clothes. • She was convicted and burned at the stake. • Joan became a martyr, and her death inspired the French to win many victories. • By 1453, the English had been driven from most of France. • France was on its way to becoming a strong, united nation. 18
Accomplishments of Joan • Had a vision to save the nation of France • Led the French against an invasion by England (Hundred Years’ War) • Defeated the English army at the Battle of Orleans • Was tried by the English for witchcraft and was executed – burned at the stake
Results of the War • Kings became more powerful and noble influence declined • Modern boundaries of England and France were set and unified both into separate nations • Feudalism ended • England began to look to distant lands for trade and conquest(increase wealth, colonies, spread Christian beliefs) 20
New Weapons • Two new weapons were used on the battlefield during the Hundred Years’ War: • Longbow - This weapon was generally between four to six feet in length and could hurl arrows with uncanny accuracy and speed. • Crossbow - The Medieval crossbow was reintroduced to England by William the Conqueror and the Normans in 1066. The crossbow range was 350 – 400 yards but could only be shot at a rate of 2 bolts per minute. • Cannon - Castles could not withstand the firepower of cannons and armored knights became less valuable in battle. (gunpowder from China reached Europe in the 1300s) 21