Did Ya Know… • England was ruled by “French” kings for 387 years? • “French” = Norman • How did THAT happen?
British Monarchy Established • 800s the island of Great Britain was divided among several small kingdoms. • Faced significant threats from Vikings in North. • Kingdoms made up of the Anglo-Saxons – shared common language & culture • 886 CE Anglo-Saxon leader , Alfred the Great, able to unite kingdoms into one nation, called Angleland. • Later be changed to England.
Alfred the Great • Created strong central government, able to use strength to defeat Vikings • Sought to bring about cultural reform in kingdom. • Established schools, • Had literary works translated into the language of Anglo-Saxons • Anglo-Saxon kings would rule England for next 200 years
Edward the Confessor • 1066, Edward The Confessor dies suddenly • Last Anglo-Saxon king of England • No male heir • After the death of King Edward, three men laid claim to the throne.
Who should be King? Harold Godwinson William of Normandy Harold Hardraada
Harold Godwinson • English and his daughter, Edith, was married to Edward the Confessor • Earl of Wessex; member of one of the most powerful families in England • Edward named him king shortly before he died; however, relations were strained (exiled in 1051, but returned in 1052) • During exile, Harold promised William of Normandy that he would help him to become king of England when Edward died.
William, Duke of Normandy • The descendant of Viking raiders, but was French • William was the grandson of Edward's maternal uncle, Richard II, former Duke of Normandy • Visited England and Edward agreed to name him as the new king when he died. • Harold Godwinson pledged to help him • Sent troops to help Edward before he died and was well respected by the English people.
HaraldHardraada • King of Norway (Viking) felt he should have been king of England too! • His family had been kings of England before Edward. • Harald had support from the English people in the north. • There was no one to replace Edward so Harald wanted the crown of England for himself. • Not related to Edward
The Witan • In Saxon times the crown was not necessarily hereditary. • A body of men called the Witan played a role in choosing the next king. • Nobody could become king without the Witan’s support. • In January 1066, the Witan chose Harold, Earl of Wessex, to be the next king. • Crowned King Harold II of England on October 14, 1066
Battle of Stamford Bridge • Viking King HaraldHardraada invades with a fleet of approximately 10,000 men • Handily defeated by Harold II’s men at the Battle of Stamford Bridge • Although a great triumph for Harold and the Saxons, their strength was badly depleted by the fight
Battle of Hastings • September 28, 1066, William landed in England with approximately 7,000 troops and cavalry. • At the end of the bloody, all-day battle, Harold was killed—shot in the eye with an arrow, according to legend—and his forces were destroyed. • He was the last Anglo-Saxon king of England.
King William I • After his victory at the Battle of Hastings, William marched on London and received the city's submission. • On Christmas Day, 1066, he was crowned the first Norman king of England, in Westminster Abbey, and the Anglo-Saxon phase of English history came to an end. • French became the language of the king's court and gradually blended with the Anglo-Saxon tongue to give birth to modern English.
Background • The term "Hundred Years War" was a historical term used by historians to describe a series of events in the 14th and 15th centuries. • The conflict was between France and England lasting 116 years, though there were long periods of “game-off” between battles. • It was fought primarily over claims by the English kings to the French throne.
Significance • The war gave motion to ideas of French and English nationality. • Introduction of new weapons and tactics, which eroded the older systems of feudal armies dominated by cavalry. • The first standing armies in Western Europe since the time of the Western Roman Empire were introduced for the war, thus changing the role of the peasantry.
Causes of the War • Norman Conquest of England: French king, William I, sits on England’s throne • Controls lands in France. • From here on out, it is English rulers’ goal to control lands in both England and France. • Also control of the English Channel • Some English kings marry into the French nobility to gain more lands
Start of the WAr • Following the death of King Philip VI in 1314, the French nobility selected Philip of Valois, a nephew of the king through the male line to become the new king. • He was chosen over King Edward III of England, whose mother was the daughter of the late king (grandson to King Philip VI) • In 1340, Edward III claimed the title “King of France” and invades And thus the war starts…
Controversy Over Succession Dead King of France King Philip VI Charles of Valois Daughter Isabella of France Edward II of England Nephew Grandson Edward III Philip of Valois
France? • France was NOT a united country before the war began. • The French king only controlled about half of the country.
The War • One king after another on both sides continue to fight • England won most of battles, but French wouldn’t surrender • Things got interesting in 1429 when a French peasant girl got involved…
Joan of Arc • French Dauphin Charles VII vs. English King Henry VI • Dauphin = Heir to the French throne • French peasant girl hears voices of Saints at age 12 • Believes that God telling her to help save France • Goes to Dauphin to offer her help. He refused.
Joan of Arc • She returned the next year and with a small force, won several battles (despite being shot through the neck in one and the leg in another!) • Major victory at Orleans • Captured by Burgundians (allied with English) who put her on trial to avoid creating a martyr: • Put her on trial for heresy & witch craft • Then, burned her at the stake!
Joan of Arc • Opps! Turns out she was turned into a martyr after all. • Inspired French to fight & unite. • By 1453, English were driven from most of France, which was now strong and united. • Joan became a saint and national heroine.
Why do we care? • Changed balance of power in England and France • Power to kings and away from feudal lords • New types of warfare • From a few knights to many foot soldiers • From hand-to-hand combat to longbow and cannons • Nationalism—feeling of national identity and pride • With no chance of another European empire…where would these powerful nations look to expand their power?
France Unified 1453